The internal symptom of devotion in the stage of perfection is that one worships Krsna in the mood of
separation (vipralambha When the lover and the beloved meet, they are called yukta (connected).
Previous to their meeting, they are called ayukta (not connected). Whether connected or not
connected, the ecstatic emotion arising due to not being able to embrace and kiss each other as
desired is called vipralambha.>). The Siksastaka (7) describes this mood as follows:
sunyayitam jagat sarvam
govinda-virahena me (1)
My Lord Govinda, because of separation from You, I consider even a moment a great millennium.
Tears flow from my eyes like torrents of rain, and I see the entire world as void.
In my agitation, a day never ends, for every moment seems like a millenium. Pouring incessant tears,
my eyes are like clouds in the rainy season. The three worlds have become void because of
separation from Govinda. I feel as if I were burning alive in a slow fire.
In the mood of vipralambha, purva-raga When attachment produced in both the lover and beloved
before their meeting by seeing, hearing and so on becomes very palatable by the mixture of four
ingredients, such as vibhava and anubhava, this is called purva-raga.> and pravasa Pravasa is a
word used to indicate the separation of lovers who were previously intimately associated. This
separation is due to their being in different places.> are especially favorable in the execution of one's
Purva-raga is described in the following five verses. In this verse from Srimad Bhagavatam (10.21.9),
the gopis praise the good fortune of the flute, which drinks the nectar of Krsna's lips:
gopyah kim acarad ayam kusalam sma venur
damodaradhara-sudham api gopikanam
bhunkte svayam yad avasista-rasam hradinyo
hrsyat-tvaco 'sru mumucus taravo yatharyah (2)
My dear gopis, what auspicious activities must the flute have performed to enjoy the nectar of Krsna's
lips independently and leave only a taste for us gopis, for whom that nectar is actually meant! The
forefathers of the flute, the bamboo trees, shed tears of pleasure just as persons who are advanced in
knowledge take pleasure to see their descendants engage in the service of the Lord. His mother, the
river on whose bank the bamboo was born, feels jubilation, and therefore her blooming lotus flowers
are standing like hair on her body.
The Srimad Bhagavatam (10.21.11) describes how the does and bucks worship Krsna and attain
good fortune after hearing the sound of Krsna's flute:
dhanyah sma mudha-gatayo 'pi harinya eta
ya nanda-nandanam upatta-vicitra-vesam
akarnya venu-ranitam saha-krsna-sarah
pujam dadhur viracitam pranayavalokaih (3)
Blessed are these deer. Though merely dumb animals, they have approached Maharaja Nanda's son,
who is gorgeously dressed and is playing on His flute. Indeed, both the does and the bucks worship the
Lord with looks of love and affection.
It is stated in the Srimad Bhagavatam (10.21.15) that by the sound of Krsna's flute, the rivers stop
flowing and worship Krsna's lotus feet with lotus flowers:
nadyas tada tad upadharya mukunda-gitam
alingana-sthagitam urmi-bhujair murarer
grhnanti pada-yugalam kamalopaharah (4)
When the rivers hear the flute-song of Krsna, their minds begin to desire Him, and thus the flow of their
currents are broken and their waters are agitated, moving around in whirlpools. Then with the arms of
their waves the rivers embrace Murari's lotus feet and, holding on to them, present offerings of lotus
Govardhana Hill becomes jubilant by the touch of the feet of Rama and Krsna and worships Them with
various offerings. As stated in the Srimad Bhagavatam (10.21.18):
hantayam adrir abala hari-dasa-varyo
yad rama-krsna-carana-sparasa pramodah
manam tanoti saha-go-ganayos tayor yat
Of all the devotees, this Govardhana Hill is the best! O my friends, this hill supplies Krsna and
Balarama, along with Their calves, cows, and cowherd friends, with all kinds of necessities water for
drinking, very soft grass, caves, fruits, flowers and vegetables. In this way the hill offers respects to the
Lord. Being touched by the lotus feet of Krsna and Balarama, Govardhana Hill appears very jubilant.
By hearing the sound of Krsna's flute the animate entities become inanimate and the inanimate entities
become animate. In the Srimad Bhagavatam (10.21.19) it is said:
ga gopakair anu-vanam nayator udara-
venu-svanaih kala-padais tanu-bhrtsu sakhyah
aspandanam gati-matam pulakas tarunam
niryoga-pasa-krta-laksanayor vicitram (6)
My dear friends, as Krsna and Balarama pass through the forest with Their cowherd friends, leading
Their cows, They carry ropes to bind the cow's rear legs at the time of milking. When Lord Krsna plays
on His flute, the sweet music causes the moving living entities to become stunned and the nonmoving
trees to tremble with ecstasy. These things are certainly very wonderful.
O friend, by not obtaining Krsna my heart is breaking. When will providence give me Krsna's
Pravasa is described in the next four verses. In this state Radharani's emotions are most relishable for
the devotees. One should read such passages as Bhramara-gita (Radharani's talks with the
bumblebee). Radharani's emotional outburst is expressed in the following words of Sri Madhavendra
ayi dina-dayardra natha he
dayita bhramyati kim karomy aham (7)
O my Lord! O most merciful master! O master of Mathura! When shall I see You again? Because of my
not seeing You, my agitated heart has become unsteady. O most beloved one, what shall I do now?
The gopis blame Providence on their separation from Krsna in these words of the Srimad
aho vidhatas tava na kvacid daya
samyojya maitrya pranayena dehinah
tams cakrtarthan viyunanksy aparthakam
vikriditam te 'rbhaka-cestitam yatha (8)
The gopis said: O Providence, you have no mercy! You bring embodied creatures together in
friendship and love and then senselessly separate them before they fulfill their desires. This whimsical
play of yours is like a child's game.
Separation from Krsna for even a moment is unbearable, as stated in the Srimad Bhagavatam
nitah sma nah ksanam iva ksanada vina tam
gopyah katham nv atitarema tamo durantam (9)
When He brought us to the assembly of the rasa dance, where we enjoyed His affectionate and
charming smiles, His delightful secret talks, His playful glances and His embraces, we passed many
nights as if they were a single moment. O gopis, how can we possibly cross over the insurmountable
darkness of His absence?
The overwhelming emotions experienced by Radharani in separation from Krsna are described in the
Hamsaduta as follows:
yada yato gopi hrdaya madano nanda-sadanan-
mukundo gandhinyasta-nayam anurundhan madhu-purim
ragadhayam radhamayapayasi radhavirahini (10)
When the Cupid of the gopis' hearts, Krsna, left the house of Nanda Maharaja and accompanied
Akrura to Mathura, Srimati Radharani's mind was disrupted. She became almost mad because of
separation from Krsna, and She drown in the deep whirlpools and waves of a fathomless river of
Ten symptoms of separation are given in the Ujjvala-nilamani as follows:
pralapo vyadhir unmado
mohomrtyurdasa dasa (11)
There are ten stages of lamentation due to separation: anxiety, wakefulness, mental agitation,
thinness, uncleanliness, talking like a madman, disease, madness, illusion, and death.
Radharani is overwhelmed by these symptoms and feeling extreme misery.
Feeling sharp pangs of separation, Radharani reproaches Krsna in the following verse from the
prema-ccheda-rujo 'vagacchati harir nayam na ca prema va
sthanasthanam avaiti napi madano janati no durbalah
anyo veda na canya-duhkham akhilam no jivanam vasravam
dvi-trany eva dinani yauvanam idam ha-ha vidhe ka gatih (12)
Our Krsna does not realize what we have suffered from injuries inflicted in the course of loving affairs.
We are actually misused by love because love does not know where to strike and where not to strike.
Even Cupid does not know of our weakened condition. What should I tell anyone? No one can
understand another's difficulties. Our life is actually not under our control, for youth will remain for two or
three days and soon be finished. In this condition, O creator, what will be our destination?
One sakhi says to Radha, Be patient. Why are You becoming so anxious? What is the benefit of this
anxiety? Your beloved, the best of heroes, will come soon.
Radha replied, O sakhi, I don't see any way He will come. The disease caused by Our loving affairs is
simply increasing, for He has not come from Mathura to save Me. Love does not know where to strike
and where not to strike. Krsna is hard-hearted in His loving affairs, therefore I am most bewildered. On
top of that, Cupid has pierced Me with his arrows. They don't understand My suffering and this life is
flickering, with youth lasting for only a few days. My dear friend, please tell Me, will that jewel amongst
heroes return to Vraja? O fate, where will I find solace?
A description of Radharani's agitation due to separation from Krsna is given the Krsna-karnamrta
kim iha krnumah kasya brumah krtam krtamasaya
kathayata kathamanyam dhanyam aho hrdayesayah
krpana-krpana krsne trsna ciram vata lambate (13)
Alas, what shall I do? To whom shall I speak? Let whatever I have done in hopes of meeting Krsna be
finished now. Please say something auspicious, but do not speak about Krsna. Alas, Krsna is lying
within My heart like Cupid, therefore how can I possibly give up talking of Him? I cannot forget Krsna,
whose smile is sweeter than sweetness itself and who gives pleasure to My mind and eyes. Alas, My
great thirst for Krsna is increasing moment by moment!
The hope for attaining Krsna has taken residence within My heart. But unfortunately that pitiable hope
seems impossible to fructify.
Radharani's delirious talk in separation from Krsna is given in the Krsna-karnamrta (41):
amuny adhanyani dinantarani
hare tvad-alokanam antarena
ha hanta ha hanta katham nayami (14)
O My Lord, O Supreme Personality of Godhead, O friend of the helpless! You are the only ocean of
mercy! Because I have not met You, My inauspicious days and nights have become unbearable. I do
not know how I shall pass the time.
Therefore, please tell this maidservant how to meet You.
Longing to see beloved Krsna is described in the Krsna-karnamrta (40):
he deva he dayita he bhuvanaika-bandho
he krsna he capala he karunaika-sindho
he natha he ramana he nayanabhirama
ha ha kada nu bhavitasi padam drsor me (15)
O My Lord! O dearest one! O only friend of the universe! O Krsna, O restless one, O ocean of mercy! O
My Lord, O My enjoyer, O beloved to My eyes! Alas, when will You again be visible to Me?
Meeting with Krsna unfolds as explained in the Krsna-karnamrta (68):
marah svayam nu madhura-dyuti-mandalam nu
madhuryam eva nu mano-nayanamrtam nu
veni-mrjo nu mama jivita-vallabho nu
krsno 'yam abhyudayate mama locanaya (16)
My dear friends, where is that sweetly effulgent Krsna, Cupid personified, who is sweetness itself, the
nectar of My eyes and mind, He who loosens the hair of the gopis, who is the supreme source of
transcendental bliss and My life and soul? Has He come before My eyes again?
Seeing Krsna come before My eyes has returned life to My body. All My miseries have gone far away.
O friend! My heart is now comforted for I have regained My lost treasure.
The direct darsana of Krsna is described in the Srimad Bhagavatam (10.32.2):
tasam avirabhuc chaurih
saksan manmatha-manmathah (17)
Then Lord Krsna, a smile on His lotus face, appeared before the gopis. Wearing a garland and a
yellow garment, He directly appeared as one who can bewilder the mind of Cupid, who himself
bewilders the minds of ordinary people.
The mood of Vraja is glorified in the Lalita-madhava. While meeting Krsna in Nava-vrndavana in
Dvaraka, Radha requests Him:
cirad asa-matram tvayi viracayantah sthira-dhiyo
vidadhyur ye vasam madhurima gabhire madhupure
dadhanah kaisore vayasi sakhi tam gokulapate
prapadyethas tesam paricayam avasyam nayanayoh (18)
O Krsna, persons with fixed minds have hoped for a long time that You will return to Madhupuri, which
is filled with intense sweetness. O Lord of Gokula, please go there in Your youthful form and perform
Your sweet pastimes before their eyes. This is My only request.
Feeling separation, Radha wishes to take Krsna back to Vrndavana, which is filled with ever-sweet
memories. Again from the Lalita-madhava:
ya te lila-rasa parimalodgari-vanya-parita
dhanya ksauni vilasati vrta mathuri madhuribhih
samvitastam kalaya vadanollasi-venur-viharam (19)
O Krsna! Within Mathura-mandala is the most fortunate forest of Vrndavana. It is surrounded by forests
ornamented with the fragrance of the sweet mellows of Your pastimes, which You perform within Your
inconceivable energy. In the congenial atmosphere of that transcendental abode You would enjoy
different sports with us gopis, whose hearts are overwhelmed with love for You. O son of Nanda, we
desire to again enjoy pastimes there with You as You play on Your flute.
Feeling intense separation, the gopis rebuke the creator of their eyelids as they gaze at Krsna. The
following statement from the Srimad Bhagavatam (10.82.39), describes the gopi's state while meeting
Krsna at Kuruksetra:
gopyas ca krsnam upalabhya cirad abhistam
yat-preksane drsisu paksma-krtam sapanti
drgbhir hrdi-krtam alam parirabhya sarvas
tad-bhavam apur api nitya-yujam durapam (20)
While gazing at their beloved Krsna, the young gopis used to condemn the creator of their eyelids,
(which would momentarily block their vision of Him). Now, seeing Krsna again after such a long
separation, with their eyes they took Him into their hearts, and there they embraced Him to their full
satisfaction. In this way they became totally absorbed in ecstatic meditation on Him, although those
who constantly practice mystic yoga find such absorption difficult to achieve.
The great eagerness of the gopis to achieve Krsna in their own residence (their hearts) is described in
the Srimad Bhagavatam (10.82.48) as follows:
ahus ca te nalina-nabha padaravindam
yogesvarair hrdi vicintyam agadha-bodhaih
geham jusam api manasy udiyat sada nah (21)
Dear Lord, whose navel is just like a lotus flower, Your lotus feet are the only shelter for those who have
fallen into the deep well of material existence. Your feet are worshiped and meditated upon by great
mystic yogis and highly learned philosophers. We wish that these lotus feet may also be awakened
within our hearts, although we are only ordinary persons engaged in household affairs.
O Krsna! We are cowherd girls. We are not yogis, nor are we materialists. All our activities are
dedicated to You. Our hearts are nondifferent from Vrndavana, so please keep Your lotus feet there
and thus fulfill our desire.
Krsna's amorous conversation with the gopis at Kuruksetra is described in the Srimad Bhagavatam
bhagavams tas tatha-bhuta
prahasann idam abravit (22)
The Supreme Lord approached the gopis in a secluded place as they stood in their ecstatic trance.
After embracing each of them and inquiring about their well-being, He laughed and spoke as follows.
Seeing the love between Krsna and the gopis, the Lord's consorts from Dvaraka are astonished.
In the Srimad Bhagavatam (10.82.44), Krsna says the living entities' affection for Him is always
auspicious, and by that affection they ultimately attain Him:
mayi bhaktir hi bhutanam
distya yad asin mat-sneho
bhavatinam mad-apanah (23)
Rendering devotional service to Me qualifies any living being for eternal life. But by your good fortune
you have developed a special loving attitude toward Me, by which you have obtained Me.
This prema-bhakti you have for Me is the supreme nectar. Under the control of this affection I am
always engaged in your service.
The following is an introduction to pradosa-lila (late evening pastimes) from Govinda-lilamrta:
radham saliganantam asitasitanisa-yogya-vesam pradose
krsnam gopaih sabhayam vihita-guni kalalokanam snigdha matra
yatnadaniya samsayitam atha nibhrtam prapta-ku?jam smarami (24)
I remember Sri Radha in the late evening. She dresses Herself in clothes suitable for the dark and light
fortnight for the pleasure of Krsna. (She wears black clothes on the new moon day and white clothes on
the full moon day.) In accordance with Vrnda's advice, She takes shelter in a secluded bower on the
banks of the Yamuna in the company of Her sakhi messenger.
I also remember Krsna sitting in an assembly of cowherd boys and watching their various feats. His
affectionate mother, Yasoda, brings Him home and attempts to put Him to sleep. Remembering the
company of Radha, He soon quietly slips out of bed and leaves for the forest bower.
I remember Radha and Krsna engaged in this pastime.
Thus ends the Saptama-yama Sadhana of the Sri Bhajana-rahasya.