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Acyutapreksa still from time to time played the part of the 'advaitin',
such was his pastime, so Madhwa could, in depth, explain to everyone in
Udupi his Sutra Bhasya. Madhwa Vijay 9:28-38., describes how on one
such occasion soon after Madhwa's arrival back a rather intense debate
took place. Acyutapreksa complained a little that Ananda Tirtha's commentary
differed from the other previous 21 commentators. Asking Madhwa why he
had not accepted the opinions of the others he said, "How can you be sure
that what you have said then is right?" Madhwacarya replied confidently,
"Truth has to be experienced in it's complete, but completeness is relative,
no object is wholly complete in this material world, but each may as an
aspect be complete within itself. Many vessels come in many sizes, all
of which will be full when one pours water into them. Even lakes and rivers
are individuals like this. Each gets filled according to its individual
capacity, but each still remains incomplete. For none can hold all of the
water. It's the same with the universe and life in general. There is only
infinite completeness to be found in the Supreme Lord alone. Acyutapreksa
then interjected saying, "Yes, it's true, that completeness is the only
truth. All other completenesses may get emptied........they are ephemiral
and so untrue. Madhwa accept this 'brahma satyam jagan mrtya' philosophy
from anyone," and so replied, "It's not permanent, but not untrue either.
If change is true, the changed object is also true there's no chance of
this if the object does not exist, is there? Let's look at some examples
seeds sprout do they not? Buds appear and blossom into flowers, then the
flowers wither and fall to the ground. Though it is not permanent it is
true. The impermanent in untrue. Life is like the sea, there are many waves
in the sea, all true yet individually different. One is not two, nor two
one. The waters of the river may get mixed, but they do not become one.
Milk doesn't of it's own accord turn to water, nor water to milk. Each
remains distinct. There are thousands of different kinds of tree, with
a myriad of individual leaves, no two are the same. Variety is created
by the order of nature. In the same way to think that I will become you,
or you I is not a correct understanding of the world and the way that things
operate. Simply it does not happen that one thing gives up it's constituational
position as an individual to merge into something else! Rather when one
fulfills his life by perfecting it in the service of the Lord then that
person becomes totally absorbed, but absorbed like the iron rod placed
into the fire taking on all of the properties of the fire but in minute
proportion. That is salvation or 'samadhi'. I am not just saying this for
arguements sake, these are eternal truths."
"My dear Ananda Tirtha could it not be that our own experience can deceive us? The serpent that we see before us could be taken as a rope, surely all that we see is really illusion, being of this same illusory world?" Ananda Tirtha replied, "A man's walking alone on a dark moon night, his mind may perceive something lying at a distance it is true, but with discrimination of intelligence he does not stop there. He examines and decides to see if the mind is confused about what it sees. Then one can see that it's not a serpent, but a rope. The mind has no doubts about the nature of the world, it is us who create illusions through our reasoning and ill-logic (logic). You see if the intellect and mind are not guided properly certainly we will see this world as illusion. Imagine a man who has never seen a snake in his life, will he ever mistake a length of rope for a snake? Only if he has seen a real snake could he compare it to a real rope. So only if we have knowledge of a reality can we say that this world is an illusion. For if there is no reality then there also cannot be falsity. You cannot find reality merely by logic! Logic is only a tool, an activity in this world. Absorbed in this logic we lose sight of experiencing transcendental reality. What I talk of is not the mind, body, or the intellect, but of the soul. We say we are satisfied after drinking water, and this realisation of experience is an eternal truth. The consciousness that pervades the soul is aware of happiness and misery, and knows what brings satisfaction. It is not that this world is unreal, but it is enacted in a temporary realm."
Acyutapreksa then tried to bring out the last 'mayavad' loop hole to their claim to being God, he said, "But is not every soul a reflection of the one soul? I understand that image, and reflection are not different, but they are experienced differently. If the soul's one and experiences different even this experience we would call illusory, wouldn't we?" Ananda Tirtha had decided to deliver the final death blow to this philosophy of 'advaita', and so let Acyutapreksa have in a very nice way. "Here's a lamp and many mirrors. We see one image with many reflections isn't it? In the mirror is my reflection, not that it is actually I. But there is never a reflection without an original image. Our being as a reflection only has some meaning where there is the original image without Him ('swatantra') we, the tiny Jivas ('paratantra') have no existance. God is the original image and we are the reflections. Circumstances make the reflection different as a result the different rewards or 'karmas' to the activities also become different. If this mirror is clear then the reflection is clear showing purely the soul, but if the reflection is blured or covered by various reactions then that is the reflection that we see. In the same way individual souls are of various kinds, some act in such a way that they are godly, some it is not clear if they godly or demoniac. Some are demoniac. My dear Sir please look around you, and think this over and decide...........!"
Acyutapreksa was proud of Madhwa and his achievements, his preaching and all the followers he had made. After Madhwa had completed fully his explanation of Brahma Sutra Bhasya to Acyutapreksa. Naturally Acyutapreksa relented and agreed that this Sutra Bhasya was just like the King of swans that drives away insignificant crow-like philosophies of the Kali Yuga.
Daily Sripad Madhwacarya would go to the Anantesvara (Anantasana) temple. As one walks in, to the left side of the entrance in the area in front of the Deity, Madhwa would sit and preach to many of his followers. Sitting in the open air, his golden body shimmering in the sunlight and propounding strongly that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Supreme Isvara, is and always will be Lord Krsna - Narayana - Visnu and we are but His insignificant servants.
To thus prove submission to the Supreme Lord, Madhwa arranged from the Pancaratiki system that his followers accept the marks of Vaisnavism - 'panca samskaras'. The five reformatory - purificatory procedures as stated in the Padma Purana, Uttara Khanda.
tapah pundram tatha nama
mantro yagasca pancamah
ami hi panca samskarah
(1) Austerity, (2) wearing the marks of Visnu on one's body, such as 'tilak', and heat 'taptah-mudras', (3) accepting a new name at the time of initiation, (4) chanting the glorification of the Lord in the form of the Lord's Holy name, and (5) engaging in the performance of the 'Yuga dharma' or supreme sacrifice.
In his Mundakopanishad quoting Narayana Samhita, Madhwa says, "... In the present controversial age of Kali, the Supreme Lord Hari is worshipped in the form of His Holy name alone."
tapto 'tra tapta cakrada-mudra dharanam ucyate
tenaiva hari namadi-mudra capy upalaksyate
Austerity means to accept the heat 'mudras' or fire brands of the Lord's
weapons, the conch and disc, as well as the Lord's names, His lotus and
club. By taking these heat 'mudras' upon one's body, detachment from the
bodily concept of life is invoked.
"Sri Madhwa made the god people (who are eligable for the right spiritual knowledge) receive with love both the good 'shastra' and (the stamp of) Sudarshana discus along with the respectable (Pancajanya) conch. Both the good knowledge and the discus have naturally undesirable form to the sinners and they remove the group of terrific sins (of the good people)."(Madhwa Vijay 9:39.) In fact it is said that one who wears the fir brands of the weapons of Vishnu, eternally remains as a servant of the Lord.
Narayana Panditacarya in Madhwa Vijay (9:39.), says "Madhwa made the good people who were devotionally inclined, and eligble for spiritual knowledge come forward and accept the mark of the Sudarshana disc along with the best of all conches Pancajanya on their shoulders. Both the good knowledge of purified scripture and this accepting of taptah mudras have a naturally undesirable effect to those who wish to remain sinful, for they remove even the most terible sins of the sinner."
To follow in the tradition that Madhwa began in Udupi, tapta mudras are still accepted on the 'Devasayan ekadasi' day in the light fortnight in the Vaisnava month of Vamana or Asadha (June-July).
pundram syad urdhva pundram tal
chastre bahu vidham smrtam
hari mandiram tat pada
krty adyati subhanaham
'Pundram' here means marking the body with sacred clay from such holy
places as Dwaraka, Prayag, the banks of the Ganges, Yamuna, Godavari, Pampa
(Tungabhadra), Kaveri or from the sacred Tulasi plant. By marking the body
with 'Vaisnava tilak' or 'urdhva pundra' or the forms of the Lord's feet,
one marks out the humility that one's body is the temple of Lord Visnu.
Madhwa instructed that as well as the vertical lines of 'gopichand', jointed at the nose like the letter U, a dark red 'bindu' dot, made from the ash of plantain flowers mixed with turmeric, be placed beneath a line of dhupasesa, which is the thickness of a grain of rice. The 'dhupashesha' is made from the burnt wick of the flames offered to the Lord during the arati ceremony.
namatra gaditam sadbhir
hari bhrtyatva bodhakam
swesta deva vapur matah
The word 'nama' means name, and this means that when one is initiated the 'guru' changes the name. As one changes one's heart one must change one's name indicating that he is a servant of the Lord. Next is 'mantra diksa'. In this verse it is said that the 'Gopal gayatri', which is the same as the Lord Himself, is given, (in fact various 'gayatri mantras' are given according to the capacity of the devotee to chant them).
salagramadi pujan yaga sabdena kathyate
pramanany esu drsyani duranadisu sadhubhih
By the world 'yaga', the worship of the 'Saligram Sila' and other Deity forms of the Personality of Godhead are described, glorified and sung about in great joy. So in this way, taking the system from references throughout the Puranas and other Vedic literatures, Madhwa established 'Vaisnava agama' of initiation for his disciples based on the Pancaratriki system.
All the Madhwa Vaisnavas, from that day on, accepted this 'panca samskara', giving up their old ways in a mood of self surrender to Sripad Madhwacarya's pure Vaisnava teachings. Devotees would gather around Madhwa wherever he would go; if it were to the temple, all the ears waited with baited breath for just one word of divine wisdom. If he went to the ocean to take bath, again crowds would assemble just to take 'tirtha' (his 'caranamrta' or water that had touched his holy body.) For such a pure Vaisnava is a walking place of pilgrimage. The result of taking unlimited baths in all the sacred bathing tanks or rivers can be had just by one eleventh of a second's association with such a pure Vaisnava devotee of the Lord.
Quite often Madhwa would go to the beach at Malpe to perform his daily ablutions, with his entourage of followers, then perform 'acaman', 'nyasa', discuss philosophy etc., and distribute the 'tirtha' and Tulasi afterwards. On other occasions he would slip away on his own around two or three O'clock in the morning to take his sea bath. On one such occasion a wonderful and famous incident took place.
Madhwa, calm and peaceful, stayed where he was on that beach, meditating
on Lord Krsna. As this "freak storm" peaked, Sripad Madhwacarya saw a merchant
ship with sails fully open being blown onto the edge of the coral reef.
Being merciful by nature, Madhwa, the son of the wind god, took his shawl
and attached it to his 'sannyasa' rod and waved it in the air. At the same
time he breathed deeply inwards and miraculously the ship was sucked through
a safe area of the reef to the beach to where Madhwa was waiting. As the
ship touched the safety of the shore, the joyful crew glorified the lone
ascetic who had saved their lives and costly cargo.
In the same swift way the storm had appeared, now it had gone, with it's mission fulfilled. The captain of the ship approached our hero, Sripad Madhwacarya, and asked how could they repay him for saving them. "We have silk, spices, gems and gold, what would you like, as certainly we are indebted to you?" Madhwa simply asked from where had they come. "Dwaraka", was the reply. "O Dwaraka? Do you have any 'Gopichand' on board? I believe you do!" The captain was happy to reply that they were using it as ballast to keep the boat stable in the water. He immediately sent his men to bring the 'Gopichand' from the cargo hold. Madhwa however had his sights on a particular piece of 'Gopichand' it was huge and heavy and none of the fifty crew members combined could not carry it. Sripad Madhwacarya to everyone's surprise, and wonder reached into the hold and picking it up with great ease, lifted it out just as Hanuman lifted the Gandamadana Hill. In fact, as he did this feat, the crew members were heard to say, "Oh look, ......just like Hanuman, .......this ascetic monk has easily with one hand lifted this huge clod of 'Gopichand' that all of our crew of fifty able bodied men could not even move. How wonderful it is."
It is said that just as the 'Purohit' or priest gives up the association of the 'Yajuman' (donor) after receiving the donation, and just as a prostitute gives up a penniless man after extracting his money, so in the same way Sripad Madhwacarya, in deep and intense devotion, gave up their association and carried single-handed this clod of 'Gopichand' up the beach and towards the road which leads inland toUdupi.
As Madhwa reached the end of the beach front, as the road turns to the
right at the village of Odapaandi (modern day name meaning "where the sailing
boat carrying the Deity came in") a large piece of 'Gopichand' broke off,
as it fell to the ground it revealed a deity of Lord Balarama.
At that place was an ancient temple of Skanda Maharaja (Kartikeya, Subhramaniyam, Murugan, the son of Lord Shiva). By tradition one cannot place a Deity of either a demigod or the Supreme Lord Visnu if the mood is not conducive to the harmony of both. So we can see that in this case, everything was perfect. The son of Lord Shiva (Sankara), naturally worships his father Lord Shiva, and Lord Shiva worships the Lord known as Sankarshana. Lord Sankarshana, Who is whitish in complexion and dressed in a blue 'dhoti', being non other than an expansion of Lord Balarama, and so a happy union was made.
Madhwa then installed the deity at that place where the Lord is known
as Sri Vadabandesvara. In great jubilation, Sripad Madhwacarya carried
the remaining piece of 'Gopichand' to Udupi. As he walked he spontaneously
composed the rest of his Dwadasa Stotram prayers.
Upon his arrival in Udupi, Madhwa gently placed this clod of 'gopichand' into the temple lake now called Madhwa Sarovara. As he put the 'Gopichand' into the water, the Gopichand broke open and dissolved, revealing a most wonderful sight. Soon, in excitement, a large crowd had gathered to see what the 'Gopichand' had revealed. It was Bala-Krsna, (Nandagopa) holding a rope in one hand and a rod for driving cows in the other.
At the time of the advent of the Kali Yuga, Dwaraka and all of it's residents wound up their pastimes as Lord Krsna and His transcendental brother Lord Balarama left for Their own abode, Goloka Vrndavan in the spiritual world. At this time Arjuna placed these Deities of Krsna and Balarama into Rukmini Vana in Gopi nearby Dwaraka.
There is an oral tradition of the history of these Deities that has been handed down through time which gives us an account in accordance with Madhwa Vijaya (9:41.).
kadacit devaki devi dwarakayam sutam harim
ucava bala lilanam darsanutsukamanasa
Mother Devaki, being desirous of witnessing the childhood pastimes that were denied her by fate, being locked up in the prison of Kamsa, approached Lord Krsna and asked this favour of Him.
yasoda balalilaste vilokya paramam mudam
jagama kila tatraikam lilam me krsna darsaya
O Krsna, Yashoda was so fortunate that she had the pleasure of enjoying Your childhood pastimes. Why don't You please show to me similar sports and pastimes?
evam matra cuditu dwarakayam
krsno bhutva balakah karhicit tam
prapamandam dadhi samloodhayantim
lilabhavai ranjayan matr cittam
Taking into account of His mother's intense feeling of love, Krsna assumed the form of the child again. Then by mystic potency He re-enacted the drama of when she was churning curds into butter, and Krsna came crying to her and in this way entertained His mother, Devaki's desires.
tad nkamaruhya papau srutam sah
stanyam tadasyam prasamiksamanah
tada tadiksavivasantara sa
sukhamburasau vijahara devi
Staring at His mother's face, child Krsna climbed onto her lap and began to drink her breast milk. Devaki's joy knew no bounds and she forgot herself in the ecstacy.
dadhyamatram vibha jyatna navanitam
navanita viliptangoo manthanam damacaharat
Krsna then got up and broke to pieces the pot of curds that His mother was churning and started to eat the lumps of butter. In the whole confusion of stealing the butter, Krsna's body became smeared with butter and curds. Then with a cheeky face, He snatched away the churning rod and rope from His mother.
kalamalpam vihrtyaiva makrtim tamathapyadhat
devaki cati santusta vismita cabhavanmuhuh
So after some time of playing, enacting His childhood pastimes for Mother Devaki, Krsna abandoned that form of a child, but Devaki remained spell bound, stunned in ecstacy for some time.
tadaiva bhaismi ca samiksya madhavam
punah punarnutanametada krtim
nirmapayamasa tada tadakrtim
Even Rukmini Devi, who could see the numerous forms of the Lord in Dwaraka, was quite fascinated by this ever fresh and enthralling form of this tiny, naughty child, and so she asked Krsna to give her a form like this that she could always keep with her.
Junior Admar Swami (H.H.Visvapriya Tirtha Swami) also mentioned to me
another story which tells of how the Deity originally came about, which
is also made reference to in the note to Madhwa Vijay 9:41.(D.R.Vasudeva
Rau. 1983. page 118.)
Lord Krsna then called for Vishvakarma, the architect of the demigods, who immediately came to that place, to satisfy the desire of Rukmini Devi. Krsna then gave him instructions to go to the sacred Kali Gandaki River in Northern Nepal and some large Saligram Silas and from those Saligram stones, fashion the transcendental forms of Krsna and Balarama.
Actually a set were also made for Devaki, though smaller, and they returned to Vrindavan with Uddhava, so records say, but have been lost due to the influence of time. After the Deities were fashioned, the Deities were first checked by Mother Yashoda to see if Their likeness was true. Then They were presented to Rukmini Devi, who worshipped them.
janan vidambayanti sa nityam tat pratimagatam
pujayamasa vibhavaih saksat tam pujayantyapi
Srimati Rukmini Devi began to worship those Deities with all the formalities in addition to serving Krsna as her husband and Lord in person daily.
krsnavatarevasite phalgunoo dwarakasthitam
sthapayamasa tamarcamuttamam rukminivane
And so when Lord Krsna wound up His pastimes after the accomplishment of His mission, Arjuna deposited those deities in Rukmini Vana in the place called Dvaraka.
pratimani tam samaj ajrurdaivat samyatrikah kalau
As by the Lord's arrangement, those Deities that were buried at the advent of Kali Yuga, were unknowingly dug out and used as ballast by the sailors and carried in the ship.
After the Krsna Deity was nicely washed off, Sripad Madhwacarya ordered
that the deity be taken to his Mutt with great care. Alas, thirty of the
strongest men in Madhwa's Mutt couldn't even move the Deity an inch. Krsna
made Himself just too heavy.
Madhwa then, with great devotion, touched the Lord's feet and with both arms, cradled the Lord and himself carried Krsna to the Mutt. Krsna would only move for Madhwa. The town was alive with talk of how Madhava came to Madhwa.(Madhwa Vijaya 9:42.) Soon many 'Vaisnavas' came forward to eagerly give donations to have a small temple built for the Lord.
It is said that Madhwa purposely chose not to build huge 'gopurams' like many of the temples in the south. Instead he chose the simple pagoda style, traditional to the Karnataka area. All kinds of donations were made available for building, but this simple 'sannyasi' kept everything nice but simple, and in proportion with Chandramulesvara and Ananta temples.
Acarya Madhwa then performed a fabulous installation ceremony for the Lord, and inaugurated and regulated the method and formula of the worship. Even the slightest detail he took into consideration, and after conducting the 'pujas' himself, he trained others how to worship Udupi Krsna. "That Madhwa who by his desire brought about the presence of the Lord, now with love installed the Deity in the temple. This image of Sri Krsna is so pleasing with His beautiful face and smile, standing in a trancendental form that is not to be appreciated merely with mundane 'prakrtik' sense."(Madhwa Vijaya 9:43.)
To those who know something of Deity worship, and who have a little
appreciation for it performed nicely, Madhwa's system and the punctuality
and cleanliness is formidable.
He established sixteen 'pujas' daily, though generally fourteen are considered as the main pujas for the Lord, which I will now outline.
(1) 'Nirmalaya Visarjana Puja' - at 4.00 am. The door is opened and
Madhwa would go and take his bath in Madhwa Sarovara, and after performance
of different 'proksanas', 'acaman', 'nyasa', 'tilak dharanam' and 'pranayam'
in the room adjacent to the actual Deity room, he would enter the shrine.
Then, accompanied by the chanting of sacred 'mantras', the flowers, Tulasi
and sandalwood paste from the previous day are removed before the Arundaya,
when the sun shows first signs of coming up. At this time he would ring
the hand bell, 'ghanta'. All the ornaments are removed at this time, then
one can see that first sight that Madhwa saw (the churning rod in the Lord's
hand and butter in the other). Seeing the Lord at this time is known as
the 'Visvarupa Darshan'.
Then five services are performed for the Lord. 'Tulasi manjari' buds and thick sandalwood paste are offered, and then a 'naivedyam' (small food offering) consisting of ground nuts and curds, ginger, jaggery (date palm sugar), tender coconut, and betal leaf and nut. Then there is a 'mangal arati' offered in a round plate.
(2) 'Usahkala Puja' (dawn 'puja' occurs between 4 - 6 am.). Sripad Madhwacarya pours water over the deity from two silver pots and Krsna is completely washed. Again Tulasi buds and sandalwood paste are offered. Krsna is then given his 'naivedyam' of sweet rice 'payasam', curds, tender coconut water, bananas, coconut, betal leaf and betal nuts.
(3) 'Aksaya Patra Puja' and 'Go Puja'. Sripad Madhwacarya established
this principle of using the 'aksaya patra' for mass 'prasadam' distribution
daily. This 'aksaya patra' was originally given by Surya's son, Vivaswan
to Dharmaraja (Maharaja Yudhisthira) when he started the exile after the
gambling match with Duryodhana. Whilst in exile Draupadi used it to cook
for different 'rshis' and sages. Madhwa personally gave this pot and ladle
for the Lord's 'puja' and blessed them that this 'annadana', mass 'prasadam'
distribution, will go on in this holy place forever.
At this time the daily 'go-puja' is performed and the tiny local cows of Udupi-Krsna's 'goshalla' are led in for Krsna's pleasure. They are given free run of the temple room and a selected cow is then formally worshiped. Following each 'puja' there is 'naivedyam'. This one for Gopal Krsna consists of fried rice, 'laddhu' made of local country sugar, 'gaur', banana etc. First it is offered to Krsna the cowherd boy, and then his 'prasadam' is offered to the cows. During this time the 'aksaya patra' is also worshipped by 'arati' ceremony, offering of lamps.
(4) 'Pancamrtabhiseka Puja'. Sripad Madhwacarya established that first
the conchshell be worshipped as 'Pancajanya', then five substances are
poured from that conch over the Deity of Krsna. First is a conch full of
pure cow's ghee which is poured on the head of the Lord, and the golden
nectar flows down to His feet. Then milk, then yogurt, then honey, then
sugar water. Then pulp of banana and tender coconut water are poured over
the body of the Lord. At this time thirty two tender coconuts are used
to make sufficient water for the bathing, and rinsing.
After this 'puja', sandalwood paste, flower petals and Tulasi buds are offered. Then the Lord again takes His meal, this time or rice, coconut followed by betal leaf and betal nut. This again is followed by 'arati' of offering lamps circulating eight times around the Lord's body.
(5) 'Udvartana Puja'. At this time the body of Krsna is thoroughly rubbed
down by the aid of powder of green gram and hot water. This takes off any
grease from the ghee or stickiness of honey or sugar from the previous
'puja'. Again after this 'puja' is over, sandalwood paste, flowers and
Tulasi buds are offered at the Lord's feet.
After Lord Krsna has taken His hot bath then he is offered hot rice, milk, butter and tender coconut, and again arati is performed, but this time offered from a large round plate.
(6) 'Kalasa Puja'. So to follow the hot water bath, the 'Kalasa Puja'
is done. By 'mantra' and mudra the presiding Deities are invoked into two
The 'Kalasas' (pots) are then decorated and anointed with Tulasi and sandalwood paste. Then after 'om' is chanted over the pots and the 'mula mantra' and 'Krsna mantra', the 'kalasa' is worshipped. Then the worship of the 'pitha' (sitting place) and again 'naivedyam' of rice is offered. Arati is again performed, and then that 'prasadam' rice is given to the Lord's carrier, Garudadeva.
(7) 'Tirtha Puja'. At this time cool water from all the sacred rivers which is held in a golden pot, is poured again over the Lord. At this time Madhwa would chant the Krsna Yajurveda Purusa Suktam prayers. Then all that sacred 'tirtha' water is collected up and Krsna is wiped dry with fine silken cloth. Again sandalwood paste, Tulasi buds, and flowers are offered, followed by 'naivedyam' (food offerings) of pancakes, butter, date palm jaggery, thick 'pongal' pudding, coconut, banana, betal leafs and betal nuts. Then eight circles with a ghee lamp make a 'mangal arati' again.
(8) 'Now the 'darshan' is prohibited, up until 'Tirtha puja' everything
is done in public, but now the 'Alankar Puja' is performed with restricted
entry and vision. At this time all kinds of fabulous ornaments are offered
to the Lord. Depending on the particular day, Lord Krsna dresses in a different
way, sometimes as Gopal Krsna, some days Vamanadeva, Kalki, Buddha, Kurma,
Rama, etc. for instance, in April-May when Matsya appeared a special dress
would adorn the Lord looking like the Matsyavatara, the body at least.
The face of the Lord is never covered. From day to day throughout the year
the Lord wears many different costumes. Some gold, some diamonds, some
rubies, pearls, etc. The only forms the Lord doesn't dress in is Narasimha
and Varaha, for to perform these pastimes His beautiful face would have
to be covered by a mask, and this is never done here. On the day of Devi
or the Mother Goddess, which is Fridays, Krsna takes such forms as Mohini,
Sita, Rukmini, Satyabhama, and dressed in a 'sari' gives 'darshana' looking
After the Lord is appropriately dressed in the costume and colour of the day, then His 'darshana' is again available. As usual a nice offering this time of rice, 'pongal' pudding, 'laddhus', flat rice, yogurt and 'kusumbari' etc., are offered, followed by sixteen waves around the Lord's body slowly with the ghee lamp, highlighting His form.
(9) 'Avasara Sanakadi Puja'. When Sripad Madhwacarya installed Krsna
in the Udupi Mutt, the Four Kumaras, headed by Sanak Kumara, came there
and expressed their desire to worship Krsna at this time daily. Madhwa
leaves the deity room and the four Kumaras worship Krsna in private. Afterwards
Sripad Madhwacarya comes back into the Deity room (inner sanctum) and offers
foodstuffs and 'arati'.
Following Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanat kumara who are the originators of the 'sannyasa' line of the Madhwa priesthood, Sripad Madhwacarya continued the system of 'puja' in Krsna mutt like that, only 'sannyasis' in the eight Udupi Mutts worship Lord Krsna here in Krsna Mutt. Those 'sannyasis' are, to this day, chosen from all the inhabitants of Udupi. Six astrologers check a new born child's astrological chart and if there is any mention or indication of contact with woman or family life, then the candidate is rejected. Only those boys whose natal chart shows a life of celibacy, religiosity, devotion to God, purity, etc., are considered as candidates for training. Then if the candidate is successful in his training, he will take 'sannyasa' before he is seventeen years of age. One takes his order of 'sannyasa' from a senior 'swami' and then becomes the junior 'swami', usually the senior 'swami' only has one initiated junior 'swami' who will become his successor after he expires from this world. This is the system established in Udupi.
(10) 'Mahapuja' ('Raja Bhoga' at lunch time). 'Mahapuja' is the last
'puja' of the morning. Before the 'puja' again Madhwa goes to the 'Sarovara'
to take his bath. Freshly bathed and anointed with fresh 'tilak', Madhwa
enters the inner sanctum. The drum known locally as Nagari is sounded to
tell the town folk the 'puja' is to begin, and everyone comes to see Madhwa
perform the 'puja'.
Sri Visnu Sahasra Nama (thousand names of Visnu) and many other Vedic hymns from the Rg, Yajur, Sama and Artharva Vedas are chanted at this time. The Brhad Naradiya Purana verse 'Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare, Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare' is also chanted. Madhwa insisted that there be 'kirtan', the congregational chanting of the names of the Lord, for it is the 'yuga dharma'.
At the end of the 'archanas', a huge feast is offered to the Deity of Krsna consisting of fourteen 'seers' (one 'seer' equals about one kilo) of rice, sweet pudding 'paramanna', 'huggi', 'appa', 'vade cakkuli', 'gulloorige', 'hoolige', 'atirasa', 'laddu', 'laddige', 'pancakajjaya', milk, yogurt, fruits, coconut, betal leaf and betal nut. (For your pleasure I have included the preparations.)
'Huggi' - is a savoury preparation with rice, green gram dhal, spiced
with turmeric, ginger and salt, boiled in water.
'Appa' - is a sweet preparation made from rice flour, jaggery (date palm sugar) and plantain fruit fried in ghee.
'Vade' - again is a savoury preparation prepared from toor 'dhal', black gram ('urid') 'dhal' and salt, rolled into little cakes and fried in coconut oil.
'Cakkuli' - a very nice savoury preparation made from rice and black gram dhal, roasted, ground, then the flour is made into traditional 'cakkuli' shapes and fried in coconut oil.
'Gullorige' - is made from semolina and is similar to 'pooris', white in colour, fried in ghee.
'Holige' - is a sweet preparation made from Bengal gram flour, maida (white flour), date palm sugar jaggery. All this is mixed together and flattened like a 'chapatti'. In fact it is cooked on an iron plate like a 'chapatti'.
'Atirasa' - This is made from rice flour, jaggery, black pepper powdered and then fried in ghee and is a wonderful sweet preparation.
'Laddige' - is another sweet made from paddy flour ('muri' - flatrice) flakes, then mixed with cardamom powder, jaggery and made into round balls.
The specialty of Udupi is 'Panca Kajjaya' - dry coconut flower scrapings - 'flakes of copra' are then mixed with Bengal gram 'dhal' then heated and powdered with local country sugar and spices, primarily cardamom.
Along with this there are two other preparation - a rice cake and rice
'kitri' offered in silver bowls. During this offering ritual of 'samarpana',
reciters and musicians chant Madhwa's Dwadasa Stotram and after the Lord
has taken His lunch, various musical instruments and bells are played for
the Lord's pleasure. This is a wonderful experience to witness.
After this Madhwa worships the associates of Krsna such as Garuda and then Bhagirathi in an unseen form at Madhwa Sarovara. In the afternoon Madhwa would sit in an adjacent room on his 'simhasana' and have persons come and see him. Devotees who come would receive 'mantraksatam' blessings on their heads. Sometimes discussions would go on for an hour or so, until it was time to take his next bath before the next 'puja' at 4.00p.m. During this time the Deity of Udupi Krsna is open for 'darshan' (2.00p.m. - 4.00p.m.), unlike many Deities, Who, in a more relaxing and restful mood, take rest after lunch whilst the inauspicious 'muhurtas' are prevalent. But not here in Udupi, as here Krsna is worshipped as a small boy, so at that time after lunch, small boys like to play, so in a loving mood various toys are offered.
At 4.30p.m. sharp Madhwa would start his evening discourses on the Mahabharata and Ramayana. After worshipping these sacred books in the form of recitation, around 6.00p.m. Madhwa would personally distribute prasadams to the devotees. Then whilst devotional musicians and singers would assemble in the 'candra sala' singing songs about the Lord and His pastimes, Madhwa would go for his evening bath in the 'sarovara' tank to prepare himself for 'Camara Seva' ceremony, which is at 6.30p.m. However before this there is 'Laxmi Puja' of Krsna where Krsna is bat6hed in a shower ('abhisheka') of pure gold coins.
(11) 'Camara Seva Puja'. The functional ('Utsava') deity of Udupi Krsna
is brought out and placed before the main Deity, then the 'Utsava' Deity
is carried on a palanquin in procession to circumambulate Udupi Krsna.
Baskets of fried rice are kept both sides of the Lord. Milk, fruits, coconut,
betal leaf and nuts, laddus, etc are also placed before the Lord.
While this was happening, Sripad Madhwacarya would chant on his 'japa mala' (beads) then to complete the ceremony he would come before the Lord and fan Him with gold handled camaras (yak tail whisks). One in each hand, he would fan Krsna for about five minutes, then go inside the inner sanctum and offer five 'upacaras' (sandalwood paste, flowers and Tulasi buds, incense, lamps and foodstuffs - 'naivedyams'). The foods consist of the fried rice and date palm sugar (jaggery) kept in the baskets.
(12) 'Ratri Puja' (night worship). At the time of entering the deity room and after performing 'acamana', then Madhwa would chant one hundred and eight names of Krsna and offer nice foodstuffs consisting of tamarind rice, pancakes, tender coconut, coconut 'pancakajjaya', then betal leaf and betal nut 'tambula'. Then all the different kinds of 'arati' flames would be waved before the Lord - camphor on a plate, ghee lamps, lamps with 'kusa' grass and ghee, some of five wicks, some seven, some nine, some in the shape of the Kurma (tortoise), some in the shape of Ananta Sesa with snake like hoods. (The remnants of these foodstuffs are spread on banana leaves between rows of lamps and are formally offered to the Mukhyaprana Deity.
(13) 'Mantapa Puja' - 'Astavadhana Puja'. Again the small functional,
festival Deity of Krsna is brought out, and in 'sankirtan' with the accompaniment
of musical instruments the Lord goes into a cradle and in a loving mood
Sripad Madhwacarya rocks the cradle. Again a nice offering of fried rice
is given to the Lord as the musicians play and the devotees chant. Then
the arati is performed again.
Flute 'seva' is next as the Utsava Deity of the Lord enjoys, now in a palanquin and circumambulates the Deity room where Udupi Krsna resides. The devotees follow whilst one devotee plays the flute for the Lord's pleasure. At this time all the devotees, according to their particular service mood, offer eight kinds of 'sabda seva', that is, each chants according to the proper 'swara' or meter the 'mantras' from each of the following to glorify the Lord, very melodiously. There is Rg Veda Seva, Yajur Veda Seva, Sama Veda Seva, Atharva Veda Seva, Vedanta Seva, Itihasa Seva, Purana Seva and San-Gita Seva.
(14) 'Ekanta Seva' - 'Sayanutsava Puja'. This service is more of a private
affair for the Lord. The small functional 'utsava' Deity is now placed
back into a cradle and is taken to, and placed on a small bed in His private
'bed room' specifically reserved for the Lord. With the Lord in the cradle,
Sripad Madhwacarya gently rocks it whilst he sings lullabies to the deity
there. Such is the parental mood. The Lord now takes rest in private.
Cooked down milk, sandalwood paste, sandalwood oil, Tulasi leaves, nutmeg, cloves and fragrant perfumes are now placed before the Lord in His cradle and a final 'arati' is performed. Then Madhwa would return to his 'simhasana' seat in the room nearby and distribute 'prasadam' to the devotees, guests and pilgrims. This he would do until quite late, during which time he would personally strike up discussions with the assembled devotees.
The time is now after 11.00 pm, and the temple itself is now locked for the night, but as for Sripad Madhwacarya, he would talk sometimes all night, and still be the first up and about in the morning to start the 'pujas'. When Sripad Madhwacarya slept he would only rest for one or two hours and arise fresher than those who had slept all night. Whatever, Madhwa would rise around 2 am to start his next day.
In this way Sripad Madhwacarya dedicated his whole life to serving the
Lord, every hour of the day he was engaged in pure devotion to the Lord.
As with everything that he did, it attracted the minds of everyone, and
more and more devotees gathered around him daily.
Madhwa supervised and oversaw all the activities of the new 'Mutt', taking an active leading role, and naturally everyone followed. His cleaning, cooking, everything was spotless. Arrangements for foot baths for pilgrims was made so as no-one would enter the temple without first washing his own legs and feet.
Udupi Krsna looked out of his small temple room overlooking the Madhwa
Sarovara tank so He knew who had washed or not. Apparently Madhwa purposely
made the temple room small so that large crowds would not gather in a rowdy
or raucous fashion. Instead in a mood of awe and reverence, they would
file in to see Krsna Who had come from Dwaraka. Madhwa insisted that the
temple be washed many times daily, and to this day one can still see the
high standard that he set in place. Some of Madhwa's standards for cleanliness
are that one must bathe at least three times daily and certainly before
one performs 'puja'. A plunge bath in Madhwa Sarovara in the waters of
the Ganges was the best. After taking one's bath and washing one's cloth,
one puts on fresh cloth. Unwashed cloth, even silk, he would not tolerate
- everyday it had to be freshly washed.
Due to Sripad Madhwacarya's need for preaching, he started to train some of his intimate disciples how to worship the Lord properly, all the little things 'purvang karmani' - how to avoid touching one's fingernails, which are to considered like dead skin; to the kinds of water that one can, and cannot use. He defined the nature of pure water that is to be used in 'puja' or for one's own acaman, 'proksana' - cleansing. He arranged that if some impurity was found in the disciple that he had placed in charge, the disciple had to purify it by fasting to absolve it.