Aurangzeb himself destroyed 10,000 Hindu temples during his reign! Some
of the larger temples were converted into mosques or other Islamic structures.
Rama Janmbhoomi (at Ayodhya) and Krishna Temple (at Mathura) are just two examples. Many others exist! This is history.
Deities plced under the ground in doorways so that everyone had to walk over and defile the icon:
KASHI'S OLDEST HINDU TEMPLE DESTROYED BY MUSLIM RULERS
Taj Mahal - A Hindu Temple-Palace
The Vijayanagara Kingdom - the Mathura of the South - the Hampi ruins:
On the site of the birth of Lord Rama, one of the most important avatars
of Lord Vishnu, stood a magnificent temple devoted to Him. However,
Babur, a fifteenth Mogul invader, who brutalized India and destroyed temples
in his zeal to spread Islam destroyed the temple and in its place - a structure
he called Babri Masjid.
For centuries Hindus tried to recover this auspicious site. Legal challenges were filed and were unresolved for decades. Hindus presented volumes of historical and archeological data to prove the existence of Shree Ramjanmabhoomi Temple. In fact, for at least 70 years no Moslem had prayed in that mosque, whereas Hindus continued circumambulating around this site, despite it being a mosque.
Finally, in what is now widely accepted as India's second freedom struggle, on December 6, 1992 the Babri Masjid was brought down and icon representing Lord Rama, was installed and worshipped.
The Ruins of Ayodhya
Controversial Hindu temple construction sparks riots, killing hundreds
Dateline: March 3, 2002
The Indian state of Gujarat has often been a flashpoint for brutal Hindu-Muslim
fighting. The home state of Mohandas Gandhi has been the site of
fierce inter-religious violence ever since India's independence in 1947.
In the past few days, riots there have killed hundreds of people, often
in the most barbaric ways.
Background of the Current Conflict
For over 500 years, the city of Ayodhya(in north-central India) was
the site of a beautiful and historic mosque, called the Babri Mosque.
It was built in 1528 A.D. by Mir Baqi, and named after Zahir-ud-Deen Muhammad
Babar, the founder of the Mughal dynasty in India.
There continues to be a disputeamong Hindus and Muslims about whether a Hindu temple had been on the site before the 16th century. Hindus believe the area to be the birthplace of their revered god, Rama. The mosque was listed as a protected monument under the Indian "Ancient Monuments Preservation Act of 1904," and courts continued to protect the mosque as an historic landmark. Nevertheless, some Hindu radicals opposed the court rulings, insisting that the mosque be torn down and a temple built in honor of Rama.
On December 6-7, 1992, thousands of Hindu activists destroyed the ancient mosque, razing it to the groundin the modern world's worst act of vandalism against a religious house of worship. Muslims were naturally angered by the illegal act and the government's lack of action to protect the minority Muslim community. Rioting broke out, leading to the deaths of nearly 3,000 people.
To add insult to injury, the World Hindu Councilannounced its plans to build a massive Hindu temple on the ruins of the Babri Mosque. Despite pleas from Prime Minister Atal Vajpayee, plans for the temple continue to move forward. Fifty Hindu artisans have gathered in the area to begin carving sandstone figures to place in the temple. On-site construction of the temple is scheduled to begin on March 15th. In anticipation of this event, over 15,000 Hindu activists had been camped out at the site, and thousands more have been making pilgrimages to the area.
On Wednesday, February 27th, a train carrying Hindu activists was brutally
attacked as it returned to Gujarat after visiting the site. Fifty-eight
people were killed. Religious leaders condemned the attack, government
officials appealed for calm, but many angered Hindus took justice into
their own hands.
In the days since, nearly 500 more people have been brutally murdered. Reports indicate that large Muslim neighborhoods have been torched by fire, the residents burned alive. While the riots are calming now, there are still pockets of violence, particularly in rural areas. As the March 15th temple construction date approaches, questions remain on whether the two faith communities can ever live in peace.
Indian Government's presentation on Rama Janmabhoomi
Plans for the future:
Lord Krishna, one of the most important avatars of Lord Vishnu is universally
worshipped by Hindus. It was Lord Krishna who gave Bhagwad Gita to
the world. Today, the at the birth place of Lord Krishna stands a
Masjid (Moslem place of worship), Shahi Mosque, instituted by a foreign
invader who destroyed a magnificent temple that stood there for centuries
if not more. A Hindu movement is underway to reinstate this temple.
The following excerpt of a news story lends further credence to
the Hindu claim
The Mathura administration has found clinching evidence which proves the Hindus' claim that the Shahi Mosque at Mathura was built over Shri Krishnajanmabhoomi temple.
According to the locals, on August 14 the local administration started digging in the courtyard of the mosque for construction of some rooms for the security staff. During the digging the labourers found stone pillars, carving and an idol of a Hindu God. They immediately reported that matter to the authorities.
As news of the recovery of the idol from the courtyard of the Shahi Mosque spread, senior police and administrative officials and members of Shri Krishnajanmabhoomi Trust reached the spot. The patron of the Trust, Shri Gopeshwar Chaturvedi, told this correspondent that during digging between August 14 and 17, besides carved stones and pillars, an idol of a Hindu God with a snake over its head was found.
Muslims are urged to recognize their Indian roots
By BALBIR K. PUNJ
The violence claiming more than 700 lives in Gujarat and elsewhere has dealt a blow to the secular image of India. It is a scar on the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)-led government, which rightfully prided its track record of giving a riot-free government.
The epicenter of the riots was Ahmedabad, the premier city of a supposedly progressive state. Gujarat has an image of dynamic state. In recent years, it has displayed tremendous resilience in overcoming havoc caused by natural calamities — cyclone, draught and the great earthquake of last year. Gujarat has the ability to rebuild itself: Like the Somnath temple that rose anew every time it was destroyed by Islamic invaders. One hopes the state will tide over this human calamity as well.
The English language media has done tremendous disservice to truth and communal harmony by portraying the riots as one-sided — almost as a genocide of minorities. But they have wilfully disregarded its provocation. The grisly incident at Godhra on Feb. 27, in which a 1,500-strong Muslim mob burned to death 58 innocent Ram bhakts (devotees of Lord Ram) proved to be the spark for the riots.
Godhra speaks of meticulous pre-planning, mercilessly executed. The suspected hands that executed the carnage have largely been identified and apprehended. They include Mohammed Hussain Kolata, president of Godhra Municipal Corporation (with Congress Party backing). The arrest of suspect Haji Bilal, who has visited Pakistan thrice, strongly hints at the involvement of that country’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) in this dastardly mission.
India is a land of diversity in respect of religion, language, customs, dress code and food habits. This worldview stems from the catholicity of Hindu religion that does not treat uniformity as a precondition for unity. It is symbolically represented by the 330 million deities, several times the actual population of India when it was conceived of in the ancient past. But an event like Godhra comes as an assault on this worldview. Who waters this poison ivy of hatred that runs in a certain section of society?
Annals of Islamic history in India, recorded by their own historians, speak of the destruction or vandalization of around 3,000 temples in the country. A mere look at Krishna Janmabhoomi in Mathura or parts of the Kashi Vishwanath Temple is enough to prove mosques had been insultingly mounted atop those structures.
It is the perverted concept of “secularism” as practiced by most of non-BJP parties that nourishes this mindset. The initial political reactions to Godhra were in tune with this mindset. The pseudo-secularists (read Congress Party, the Communists and the Communalist combine) practically held the victims of Godhra responsible for their miserable end.
In short, they described Godhra as a minority backlash to the Vishwa Hindu Parishad’s (VHP) provocative Ram janambhoomi (Ram’s birthplace) movement to build a Ram temple at the disputed site of the 16th century Babri mosque at Ayodhya. Fearful of losing the minority vote bank, most of them kept their mouth shut lest they be seen as sympathizing with the Ayodhya cause. Their antipathy toward the majority actually poured fuel into the fire that engulfed Gujarat within a day.
It is true that Godhra came about against the backdrop of the VHP’s renewed movement to recover the Ram janmabhoomi at Ayodhya. But in conducting a purna ahuti yagna (sacred fire ritual) far from the disputed land, the VHP had neither stepped outside of the legal ambit nor flouted civil norms. Hindus have steadfastly believed that Ram was born here.
The demolition of the Babri structure, defunct as a mosque for 60 years, is much publicized as “fascist Hindu act.” But what is not said is that Hindus have been trying to recover Ram janmabhoomi from the day Mir Baqi, a noble of Mughal emperor Babar, imposed a mosque on it in 1528. This mosque was a memorial to humiliate the vanquished Hindus.
Tell-tale evidence excavated from around the disputed site speaks volumes about the Hindu connection. A stone slab of about 5’x2.25’ recovered from the debris on Dec. 6, 1992, records the construction of a magnificent gold-topped temple of Ram during the reign of emperor Govind Gahadwal (1114-1154 A.D.) by king Naya Chandra and Ayush Chandra. This certainly proves the presence of a temple that was demolished to make way for a mosque.
It is an open question before the minority community whether they would like to identify themselves with their ideological forefathers, who came as invaders from Arabia and Central Asia, or their real forefathers, who belonged to this land.
Islamic history in India, recorded by their own historians, speak of the destruction or vandalization of around 3,000 temples in the country. A mere look at Krishna Janmabhoomi in Mathura or parts of the Kashi Vishwanath Temple is enough to prove mosques had been insultingly mounted atop those structures.
A mosque near Qutab Minar in Delhi is recorded by the Archaeological Survey of India as the earliest extant mosque in India, constructed with material from 27 destroyed Hindu and Jain temples between 1193 and 1197 A.D.
Hindus have never abandoned their pursuit of Ram janmabhoomi. Prior to 1947, there were a total of 77 recorded unsuccessful attempts to recover the land both in Muslim and British time. Hindus continued to assemble at the place and, in 1857, a Hindu priest built an altar (Ram chabutara) on part of the shrine compound.
Hindus have tried to recover that piece of land in accordance to the law of the land. Mahant Raghuvar Das had filed a case in the Faizabad District Court as early as 1885. Even though the court could not oblige him, the British judge recorded two important facts in a judgment dated March 18, 1886. That the structure was built by Babar and that it was erected on Hindu sacred land.
The present legal tangle has been in court since 1949. Dec. 6 , 1992, should never have happened if the legal system was not so slothful in deciding the case. Mahant Ramchandra Das was 40 when he took the matter to the Faizabad District Court.
Today, he is over 90 and is still awaiting the reply of a special bench of the Allahabad High Court. We can hardly criticize him for being on the warpath at this late age. How long is he — and the Hindus — expected to await a decision in the matter?
Unfortunately, the secularists have always tried to play it down merely as a titular dispute pertaining to law and order. They have overlooked the sentiments of 850 million of Hindus. The Muslims can easily give up their demand over this piece of land since they have no special sacredness attached to it, but for the bigoted view in a certain coterie that “once a mosque always a mosque.”
There are so many mosques enjoying threat-less freedom all over India. The communalists cannot perpetually hold the majority community to ransom over this dispute.
While Hindus have pledged to abide by the court orders, authorities must understand that the satisfaction of the majority community is vital to governing any country. It is an open question before the minority community whether they would like to identify themselves with their ideological forefathers, who came as invaders from Arabia and Central Asia, or their real forefathers, who belonged to this land.
The key to Hindu-Muslim relations lies in Muslims realizing the fact that their cultural roots lie in the Hindu-Buddhist culture of their ancestors — and not in the Middle East.
(The writer is a Bharatiya Janata Party lawmaker in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of Parliament)
The Magnificent Vijayanagar
The new capital was named 'Vijayanagar'; the name means 'the City of
Victory'; this was in honor of the grand victory that Harihara and his
brothers had scored against the Sultan of Delhi. Later the empire that
Harihara. Built was also named 'Vijayanagar'.
This was the first victory that the united kings of the South scored against the Sultan of Delhi. Thereafter it took several years more for them to drive out completely all the forces of the Sultan from South India. But Hindu Dharma had to regain strength. Harihara and his brothers with the help of Veera Ballala founded the Vijayanagar Empire and this was a good beginning. The attacks of the Sultan of Delhi ended and South India became free once again.
Later, Vijayanagar became a great empire in India. Famous emperors like Proudhadeva Raya, Krishnadeva Raya, Salva Narasimha and Aliya Rama Raya brought greater and greater glory to the throne of Vijayanagar. Still the people did not forget Hakka and Bukka. Their very names suggest that they wereKannadigas. Many dedicated warriors fought for the preservation of the freedom of the country and the preservation of Hindu Dharma. Hakka and Bukka were gems among these champions.
Harihara and Bukkaraya were really fortunate to have obtained the guidance and protection of such a great saint as Vidyaranya. Before he became a Sanyasi,
Viayaranya's name was Madhava. He was a great scholar in the Vedas and other
religious texts. At the age of thirty-one he gave up worldly life and became a Sanyasi (or monk). He saw the sufferings of the people all round him; he saw how they had to live in fear and without freedom, under the Sultan of Delhi; and he felt unhappy. He lived for fifty years after he became a Sanyasi, and was a tower of strength to those who fought for freedom. It was he who inspired Harihara and Bukkaraya to found the Empire of Vijayanagar and expand it. He always guided them with his advice and encouragement. Later Sri Vidyaranya became the Swamiji of Sringeri Mutt.
The Sacred Hampi
In the cultural and religious history of India, Hampi occupies as important a place as
Kashi. Anegondi and Hampi were on the opposite banks of the Tungabhadra. There are many mythological stories concerning these twin towns and their surroundings. One of them is as follows:
Pampa was the daughter of Brahma. By strict and deep meditation on Lord Shiva, she became his wife. So Shiva became 'Pampapathi' (the husband of Pampa). He settled down in this region.
The Ramayana is a very old and a very great epic (a long poem telling the story of a mighty hero) of India. Sri Rama is the hero of this epic; the great poet and sage Valmiki wrote this. He refers in the Ramayana to Hampi and the region around.Kishkindha, the capital of Vali and Sugreeva of the Ramayana, is said to have been situated near Anegondi. Places bearing the names 'Sita Sarovara', 'Ramapada', Vali Bhandara', 'Sugreeva's Cave' and the 'Ashram of Shabari' bring back to us memories of that great epic. The hillocks nearby are popularly known as 'Rishyamooka','Malya-vanta' and 'Matunga'; these names appear in the Ramayana.
The crowning glory of the region is the temple of Virupaksha. It is one of the most
important of the ancient monuments here. It was probably built in the fourth century,
nearly a thousand years before the founding of the Vijayanagar Empire.
Harihara the Brave (1336 - 1356)
In 1336, Harihara was crowned the King of Vijayanagar. Bukkaraya became its Crown
But Veera Ballala's goal had not yet been reached. Hakka and Bukka had still much to achieve with their courage and strength. The Delhi Sultan's forces were still strong in several regions of Andhra Pradesh.
After crowning Harihara. The King of Vijayanagar, Veera Ballala returned to Madurai. The Sultan's officers in that region were giving much trouble to the people. There was no one to check them. They behaved as if they were independent kings. They looted the people's money. Veera Ballala had made up his mind to put an end to all this. He was building up an army for this purpose.
In the north Harihara and Bukkaraya were left to perform a similar task. The Sultan's
forces were still strong in the north of the Tungabhadra and some important places in Andhra Pradesh. They knew very well that it was necessary for the freedom of the country to destroy the military camps of the Sultan's forces and drive them away from the south. They started collecting men and money. They tried to get popular support for this purpose. What remained of the Hoysala treasury was of use to them.
This is a Leader!
A king must have certain qualities if his subjects are to love and respect him. He must have a strong will to complete a task undertaken, whatever the obstacles. He must be able to foresee the results of every step he takes. A capacity to plan his work is one of the most essential qualities of a good leader. He should also know how to deal with his enemies and how to earn the friendship of other kings.
Hakka and Bukka had all these qualities. Their brothers Kampana, Marappa and
Muddappa offered them all co-operation. More than all, the five brothers had fully
developed in themselves a capacity to plan their action together and carry out their plans with efficiency. As a result, a fully equipped army, capable of facing the enemy with confidence, was soon ready.
It was not an easy task to teach a lesson to the officers of the Sultan and it could not be done in a short time. Hakka and Bukka had to struggle for five years before they could get any success. At last theenemies ran away. A very vast area between the Eastern and the Western Ghats came under the rule of Hakka and Bukka. Hakka took to himself the title 'Poorva-Paschima Samudradhishwara' (The Lord of the Eastern and Western Oceans). Having the good of his subjects at heart, he divided the large kingdom into several 'mandalas' (divisions) and appointed divisional administrators. The government had to be based on a good system; this took several years. His brothers fully co-operated with him in the task.
End of Veera Ballala
Just as the struggle for freedom was gaining victory after victory in the northern portion of the Hoysala Empire, very sad news reached Vijayanagar. The fight, which Veera Ballala had started against the cruel officers of the Sultan of Delhi in the region of Madurai, was still going on. Madurai was yet in the hands of the enemies. Veera Ballala surrounded that strong fortress. The local leaders did not render any help to him, because they were afraid of the Sultan's officers. Hakka and Bukka were too busy in the north to go to his help. Nor could they send any army to assist him.At this stage, the Sultan's generals deceived Veera Ballala. They told him that if he permitted them to go back to their own places with their wealth and their belongings they would hand over Madurai to him without a fight. Veera Ballala believed them, raised the siege and turned back. The Sultan's army rushed out of the fort all of a sudden, and fell on Veera Ballala's army. In the unequal battle that followed, Veera Ballala was killed. He was eighty then.
Veera Ballala was a very unfortunate king. He fought for twenty long years in the cause of his country and Dharma. He showed a rare political farsightedness in the establishment of the Vijayanagar kingdom. But most people have forgot him.
Virupaksha, son of Veera Ballala, was in contrast an inefficient and incapable ruler.
Veera Ballala had several chieftains under him. As long as he was on the throne they
were all-afraid of him and were obedient. But once Virupaksha came to the throne, they wanted to become independent. So Hakka and Bukka themselves had to look after the welfare of the Hoysala Empire. In course of time, the Hoysala Empire merged into the Vijayanagar Empire.
The Struggle Continues
After the death of Veera Ballala, the Sultan's generals once again became powerful. They recaptured the regions taken from them by Veera 13611ala and once again became the lords of the Madurai kingdom.
The kings of Vijayanagar had thus tocontinue the half-finished struggle for freedom in the South. But they used different tactics. They decided to surround Madurai instead of attacking it directly. All long the eastern coast, from Kanchee- puram to Rameswaram they captured important places. The people in these regions, who had become disgusted with the misrule of the Sultan's officers gladly accepted the lordship of the rulers of Vijayanagar. Hakka and Bukka beganmaking preparations to march on the Southern army posts of the Sultan of Delhi.
A Champion of Country and Dharma, A Good King
Harihara became the king when the New Kingdom was born in 1336. He ruled till 1356. He had to strengthen the defence of the borders; he had to build up a good system of government. These took up much of his time.
As already said, the Sangama dynasty was the first to rule over Vijayanagar and Harihara was its first king. Kriyashakti Pandita of the Kriyashakti Peetha, belonging to the Kalamukhakirti sect, was his guide in administration. After the death of Veera Ballala, the southern parts of the Hoysala Empire came under the rule of the king of Vijayanagar. Dorasamudra, the capital of the Hoysala kings, had been attacked by enemies and was in a sad state. It could not resist another attack. So Hakka had to rebuild it and make it strong. He had to plan also the defence of the surrounding areas. Temples and mutts (seats of holy'-teachers of religion) were almost in ruins. Hakka had to bring back to the temples and mutts the honor due to them. He engaged himself in this work" with sincerity and devotion. Fouryears after the death of Veera Ballala, Hakka visited Sirngeri with his close relatives and officers. Adi Sankaracharya established the Sringeri Jagadguru Peetha at Sringeri in his efforts to give new strength to Hindu Dharma. When Hakka visited the Mutt, Sri Bharati Tirtha was in the seat. Hakka and his brothers were very respectful towards the Swamiji and requested his blessings. They also granted many donations in keeping with the worth and the high place of the Peetha.
Hakka and Bukka were incomparable warriors. They continued the freedom struggle started by Veera Ballala and saved Hindu Dharma and culture when they were in great danger.
Hakka died in 1356. Bukkaraya succeeded him as king.
When Hakka was fighting the enemies, and also later when he was the King of
Vijayanagar, Bukkaraya gave him all support and was his right-hand man. But now he had to shoulder all the responsibilities himself. It was now his work to remove all the obstacles in the path of his country's progress. His achievements in this direction make as thrilling a history as the establishment of the Vijayanagar Empire.Of course, the Vijayanagar Empire had been placed on firm foundations. But its enemies were always trying to undermine this foundation. Bukkaraya knew that his first duty was to strengthen the borders of his kingdom and protect them.
The Bahamani Menace
Most of the generals and officers of the Sultan of Delhi had been defeated and driven away from the South. But some of them had remained behind and they were trying to build for themselves independent kingdoms. One such adventurer was Allauddin Hassan Bahamani. He founded a New Kingdom in 1346 at Kalburgi (Gulburga of today), north of the river Krishna. It became famous as the Bahamani Kingdom.
The Bahamani kings were adventurous. Their ambition was to capture the whole of
South India. Particularly ambitious was Mohammed Shah, one of the Bahamani kings. Bukkaraya was wise enough to understand the danger from this king and developed friendship with the King of Warangal. Mohammed Shah invaded Vijayanagar thrice and all the three times, ran away completely defeated. But he and his successors put up a continuous struggle to capture and land between the Krishna and the Tungabhadra.
The war with Mohammed Shah taught Bukka a lesson; these was that he should always be alert and ready and that he should expand his army and equip it well. There were some kings under him who made a show of faithfulness towards him but were really unfaithful. Bukka had to bring them under his control. In the South, the Sultan's officers were again raising their heads after the death of Veera Ballala. They had to be checked. Madurai was to be saved. Bukkaraya planned to achieve all these things at one stroke. He decided to build a very huge army, unheard of in the South at any time.
As soon as the army was ready, Bukkaraya entrusted his second son, Kampana, with the task of capturing Madurai. Kampana was young but brave; he was determined to finish any task he undertook. He was an expert in the science of warfare. When Bukkaraya was engaged in driving the foreigners out of his kingdom, Kampana had fought by his side. He was also well trained in the art of ruling. He had, in addition, the wisdom to bring round to his own side the defeated enemies and make them faithful supporters of the Empire.
Tondaimandalam was a kingdom to the east of Vijayanagar. The Bahamani kings had an eye on it. The ruler of this kingdom was one Champaraya. Bukka had offered his hand of friendship to him but Champaraya had not cared for him. So the Sultans of Bahamani were planning to attack Tondaimandalam. Bukka saw that, if Tondaimandalam fell into the hands of the Sultan, his Vijayanagar would be in danger. So Kampana's army marched against Champaraya. Champaraya was defeated; the chieftains under him wanted to come to terms with Kampana. But Champaraya himself was stubborn. He took shelter in a fort known as Rajagambhira. Kampana had no choice; he had 'to attack Rajagambhira. Champaraya died in the battle. So Kampana was able to bring Tondai- mandalam under the Vijayanagar King. By that time, he had received sad news. All worship had stopped in the sacred places of the south like Chidambaram, Srirangam and Madurai. Once, thousands of pilgrims used to go to these holy places. But now the sacred images were no longer there. The Sultan's officers were responsible for it. The local people, afraid of these foreigners, had shifted the idols from the temples to safer places. Kampana could not bear the news. He laid siege to Madurai. The Sultan's general died on the battlefield. Madurai became free. Srirangam also became free, thanks to Kampana.
After this glorious victory, Kampana became the Governor of the Southern Province of the Vijayanagar Empire. He had under his rule a vast area in the south upto Rameswaram. Virinchipuram or Marakatanagar on the banks of the Kaveri was his capital. The Bangalore and Kolar Districts of today were also under his rule.
Worship was resumed in the temples. People could freely move about, go on pilgrimage and worship God according to their faiths. Under the Sultan's officers, the Hindus could not even breathe freely. But now they could live happily as free men. They did not have to live in fear of sudden disaster. There was peace everywhere. Kampana achieved in the south what Hakka and Bukka had achieved in the north.
The Lamp Goes Out
In 1375, an unexpected disaster struck Bukkaraya and the empire. .
The brave Kampana died.
He was to have adorned the throne of Vijayanagar after Bukkaraya. He was a warrior capable of safeguarding the freedom of his country and a ruler who could keep his subjects happy. It was really a great misfortune that Bukka and the Vijayanagar Empire lost him most unexpectedly.
Gangadevi, the wife of Kampana, has described his valor in her Sanskrit work, 'Madura Vijayam' or 'Veera Kampanaraya Charitam'. The book brings out very clearly the sad state of our country, our Dharma and our culture before, and how Hakka, Bukka and Kampana saved them. The whole work throbs with patriotic devotion.
Great in War and Great in Peace
Bukkaraya won great victories on the battlefield. He won equally great and enduring victories in times of peace as a ruler. During his reign, the empire, extending from the Tungabhadra to Rameswaram, enjoyed peace and plenty.
Bukka was a far-sighted and wise king. One mark of a wise leader is that he puts an end to a trouble before it becomes a danger. He is watchful; at the first sign of trouble he deals with it firmly. He is especially careful in guarding the unity of the people. One instance shows Bukka's greatness as a ruler:
Once it so happened that two groups in his own kingdom began fighting with each other:
The Jains were in a minority. The Shrivaishnavas, who followed a different religion, were in the majority. Differences of opinion developed between them. Gradually these grew, and they began to fight. News of this reached Bukka.
He sent for the leaders of both the communities and advised them thus : "Jainism is great and Shrivaishnavism also is great. Both of you should respect the faith of each other and help each other. Both of your faith show peoples how to live a life of goodness. Do they not both teach that you should give up violence and hatred and help others with love? The Delhi and the Bahamani Sultans are just waiting with their mouths open to swallow us. How could you fight with each other at this time? Do you not think that your internal fight will result only in danger to all?"
The leaders hung down their heads in shame. They promised the king that they would be friends thereafter.
Bukka called for a public meeting. There he made the leaders of the two communities join hands. He advised them again: "it is wrong to say that one man is high and another man is low. It is also wrong to think that one's loss is the other's gain. You should consider each other's troubles as your own." He also ordered that the Shrivaishnavas should compensate the Jains for their losses.
'Respect the faith of each other.'
This incident is described in one of the stone inscriptions found at Sravanabelagola.
The mistaken idea that one religion was higher than the other was thus removed even in the early stages. People of all religions could respect one another and live together in peace and harmony. In this way Bukkaraya acted in time and put an end to a great danger to the unity and safety of the empire. This policy of his has set an example to people of all lands and times.
Freedom to Live And Learn
Under the Sultans of Bahamani and Delhi, the people could not worship their own Gods. Hakka and Bukka brought them the freedom to do so. Still, not many of them could read or understand their religious texts. The two brothers therefore made it possible for the learned in every religion to explain their religions to the masses. Sri Vidyaranya wrote 'Vedartha Prakashika' for those who could not read and understand the Vedas in the original. Efforts were made to collect and publish Veerasaiva literature and 'Vachanas'. (The 'Vachana' is a form of literature in Kannada. The great Veerasaiva teachers put their teachings into short passages; these are in prose. They are very close to the spoken language; they are in a clear and powerful style, and contain vivid pictures.) Hakka and Bukka respected all religions equally. So Jain authors and writers could also freely write books on their religion. Hakka and Bukka were patrons of learning and literature. They were as interested in culture as in war. The age of these kings was a remarkable age; the king, the religious teacher, the scholar and the poet all respected one another; they worked together for the good of the people. Any country should be proud of such an age and such men.
After a successful rule of twenty- one years, Bukkaraya passed away in 1377. His son, Harihara the Second, succeeded him.
The Creators of A New Age
The period of Hakka and Bukka (1336-1377) is a very important one in the history of South India. Before them the Hindus were in great trouble because of their disunity. The Sultans of Delhi and Bahamani kingdoms were always trying to conquer the Hindu kingdoms. It was in such circumstances that these brothers brought the Hindus together. They respected all sects and groups and taught them how to live in co- operation and
peace. They also encouraged learned men to write books so that people could
understand religious texts more easily.
Hampi, the divine abode of Lord Virupaksha, became the capital of Harihara's New Kingdom; it grew in wealth and prosperity during the reign of Bukkaraya and later blossomed into a great city that enchanted tourists from different parts of the world.
Gangadevi, the poetess of the age and the daughter-in-law of Bukkaraya, has in her
'Madura Vijayam' described Hakka and Bukka as two wise and brave men who created a new nation, a new religion and a new society. The description is without doubt apt and richly deserved.
It is said that winning peace is difficult as winning a war.
True, it is difficult to win a war. It requires a powerful army. Food and arms have to be
regularly supplied for the soldiers. The soldiers have to be sincere and faithful. The general has to be clever and wise. He must have the capacity to take quick decisions and give clear and exact orders to his army. He should also be an expert in the science of warfare. But it is even more difficult to administer the country, after the war is won, in such a way that the people live in peace, prosperity and happiness. An efficient army is to be maintained to prevent It-he enemies from attacking the land. Efficient off icers has to be chosen to carry on the government. They should be kept under strict control so that they do not become too powerful and cruel towards the people. Care must be taken to see that the majority does not ill-treat the minority, that the rich do not make the poor work and suffer, and that the powerful do not trouble the powerless. Injustice to any section of the society has to be prevented.
Hakka and Bukka were patriots who won both war and peace. Acquiring the blessing of Dharma for their powers of brain and brawn, they created a new and great age in the history of South India.
For all the details from there on see the link: A Forgotten Empire:
The Vijayanagara Empire[1336 AD - 1565 AD]
Hariharaand Bukka, two brothers from Warangal, whom the Sultan Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaqhad
taken captive, were converted to Islam, and were commissioned to consolidate
his rule in Kampila. When the Sultan became weak, they renounced Islam
and conquered the territory of the Hoysalas.
They founded the Vijayanagara Empirealong the river Tungabhadra, in 1336 with the capital Hastinavati(modern Hampi). This Empire protectedsouth India from any further muslim depredation and brought a Golden Erain south India.
Bukka succeeded Harihara in 1356 AD and ruled till 1377 AD. The rising power of the empire brought it into clash with many powers both in the north and in the south.
In the south they had to fight with the Sultan of Maduraifor about four decades, till they wiped it out in 1377 AD. In the north the Bahamaniswere their strong enemies.
The interestof the Vijayanagara and Bahamani empires clashed on four areas :
The Tungabhadra doab(for wealth and resources),
The Krishna-Godavari delta(fertile and had numerous ports for foreign trade),
The control of diamond minesof Golconda, and
control of Konkan(extremely fertile and included the port of Goa - an important outlet in the west).
Military conflictbetween these kingdoms were almost regularand resulted in the widespread devastationof the contested areas and neighbouring territories and a considerable loss to life and property. Both committed various barbarities. Finally both sides were exhausted and decided to conclude treatyand agreed to avoid crueltyin war.
After the death of Deva Raya IIin 1446 AD, there was a series of civil warsamong the various contenders to the throne. After some time, the throne was usurped by the king's minister, Saluva, who restored the internal law and order. This dynasty also soon ended and a new Tuluva dynastywas founded by Krishnadeva Raya(1509 AD - 1530 AD).
The economycontinued to grow on the Chola patternand Hinduismwas restored. Architecture and culture reached their pinnacle and saw the Golden Erain the south under Krishna Deva Raya. At its peak, the kingdom extended from Cuttack in east to Goa in the West and from Raichur Doab in the North to the Indian Ocean in the South. He wrote Amuktamalyada, a Telugu compendium on polity.
Under him the empire emerged as the strongest militarypower in the south. After his death there was a struggle among his relations as his sons were all minor. Ultimately in 1543, Sadashiva Rayaascended the throne and ruled till 1567, however the real power was in the hand of Rama Raja, who played off the various muslim powers against one another.
In a series of wars Rama Raja completely defeated the Bijapurruler to inflict humiliating defeats on Golconda and Ahmadnagar. It seems Rama Raja had no larger purpose than to maintain a balance of powerfavourable to Vijayanagara.
Due to the weakening of Bahamani kingdom, there was internal strife and were finally divided into five parts, namely,
Adil Shahiof Bijapur, Qutub Shahiof Golconda, Nizam Shahiof Ahmadnagar, Barid Shahiof Bidar and Imad Shahiof Berar.
Later, The five broken Bahamani kingdoms, did a combined crusadeon Vijayanagara at Bannihattiin 1565 and in the battle of Rakshasa-Tangadi, Rama Raja was surrounded, taken prisoner and immediately executed and this brought an end to the Best Empire of the South. It was thoroughly lootedand left in ruins.
This page has some wonderful pictures of around Hampi
A Forgotten Empire: Vijayanagara;
A Contribution to the History of India - Robert Sewell
More pictures of the glorious Vijayanagara kingdom's ruins:
By now you all know through my previous articles, the irrefutable facts and deductive logic which prove that Islam is evil right at its very foundation. It is not a religion, but a means to legalize rape, murder, loot and destruction! Given what I have shown in these previous weeks, no one should have the slightest doubt that the true followers of such a "religion" can only be called dacoits!
These dacoits have looted and raped many countries, but no country can tell a bloodier tale of muslim oppression than India! The muslim dacoits started their rule over India in 712 A.D. with the invasion of Mohammed Qasem and looking at the present situation of our country it still continues on today!
During their rule they looted and destroyed hundereds of thousands of Hindu temples. Aurangzeb himself destroyed 10,000 Hindu temples during his reign! Some of the larger temples were converted into mosques or other Islamic structures. Ram Janmbhoomi(at Ayodhya) and Krishna Temple(at Mathura) are just two examples. Many others exist!
The most evident of such structures is Taj Mahal--a structure supposedly
devoted to carnal love by the "great" moghul king Shah Jahan to his favorite
wife Mumtaz Mahal. Please keep in my mind that this is the same Shah Jahan
who had a harem of 5,000 women and the same Shah Jahan who had a incestuous
relationship with his daughter justifing it by saying, 'a gardner has every
right to taste the fruit he has planted'! Is such a person even capable
of imagning such a wondrous structure as the Taj Mahal let alone be the
architect of it?
The answer is no. It cannot be. And it isn't as has been proven. The Taj Mahal is as much a Islamic structure as is mathematics a muslim discovery! The famous historian Shri P.N. Oak has proven that Taj Mahal is actually Tejo Mahalaya-- a shiv temple-palace. His work was published in 1965 in the book, Taj Mahal - The True Story. However, we have not heard much about it because it was banned by the corrupt and power crazed Congress government of Bharat who did not want to alienate their precious vote bank--the muslims.
After reading Shri Oak's work which provides more than adequate evidence to prove that Taj Mahal is indeed Tejo Mahalaya, one has to wonder if the government of Bharat has been full of traitors for the past 50 years! Because to ban such a book which states only the truth is surely a crime against our great nation of Bharat.
The most valuable evidence of all that Tejo Mahalaya is not an Islamic building is in the Badshahnamawhich contains the history of the first twenty years of Shah Jahan's reign. The writer Abdul Hamid has stated that Taj Mahal is a temple-palace taken from Jaipur's Maharaja Jaisigh and the building was known as Raja Mansingh's palace. This by itself is enough proof to state that Tejo Mahalaya is a Hindu structure captured, plundered and converted to a mausoleum by Shah Jahan and his henchmen. But I have taken the liberty to provide you with 109 other proofs and logical points which tell us that the structure known as the Taj Mahal is actually Tejo Mahalaya.
There is a similar story behind EveryIslamic structure in Bharat. They are all converted Hindu structures. As I mentioned above, hundereds of thousands of temples in Bharat have been destroyed by the barbaric muslim invaders and I shall dedicate several articles to these destroyed temples. However, the scope of this article is to prove to you beyond the shadow of any doubt that Taj Mahal is Tejo Mahalaya and should be recognized as such! Not as a monument to the dead Mumtaz Mahal--an insignificant sex object in the incestous Shah Jahan's harem of 5,000. Another very important proof that Taj Mahal is a Hindu structure is shown by figure 1 below. It depicts Aurangzeb's letter to Shah Jahan in Persian in which he has unintentionally revealed the true identity of the Taj Mahal as a Hindu Temple-Palace. Refer to proofs 20 and 66 stated below.
Take the time to read the proofs stated below and know to what extent
we have been lied to by our own leaders. These proofs of Shri P.N. Oak
have been taken from the URL: http://rbhatnagar.ececs.uc.edu:8080/hindu_history/modern/taj_oak.htmlI
would like to commend the creator of the above mentioned web site for taking
the time to put up the proofs given by Shri P.N. Oak.
For more information you can order the book, Taj Mahal - The True Storyauthored by Shri P.N. Oak. The ISBN number of the book is ISBN 0-9611614-4-2. The book is available through A. Ghosh (Publisher), 5720 W. Little York, #216, Houston, Texas 77091. Visit Sword Of Truth - Online Magazinefor more information
Proofs follow below:
1.The term Tajmahal itself never occurs in any mogul court paper or chronicle even in Aurangzeb's time. The attempt to explain it away as Taj-i-mahal is therefore, ridiculous.
2.The ending "Mahal" is never muslim because in none of the muslim countries around the world from Afghanistan to Algeria is there a building known as "Mahal".
3.The unusual explanation of the term Tajmahal derives from Mumtaz Mahal, who is buried in it, is illogical in at least two respects viz., firstly her name was never Mumtaj Mahal but Mumtaz-ul-Zamani and secondly one cannot omit the first three letters "Mum" from a woman's name to derive the remainder as the name of the building.
4.Since the lady's name was Mumtaz (ending with 'Z') the name of the building derived from her should have been Taz Mahal, if at all, and not Taj (spelled with a 'J').
5.Several European visitors of Shahjahan's time allude to the building as Taj-e-Mahal is almost the correct tradition, age old Sanskrit name Tej-o-Mahalaya, signifying a Shiva temple. Contrarily Shahjahan and Aurangzeb scrupulously avoid using the Sanskrit term and call it just a holy grave.
6.The tomb should be understood to signify Not A Buildingbut only the grave or centotaph inside it. This would help people to realize that all dead muslim courtiers and royalty including Humayun, Akbar, Mumtaz, Etmad-ud-Daula and Safdarjang have been buried in capture Hindu mansions and temples.
7.Moreover, if the Taj is believed to be a burial place, how can the term Mahal, i.e., mansion apply to it?
8.Since the term Taj Mahal does not occur in mogul courts it is absurd to search for any mogul explanation for it. Both its components namely, 'Taj' and' Mahal' are of Sanskrit origin.
9.The term Taj Mahal is a corrupt form of the sanskrit term TejoMahalay signifying a Shiva Temple. Agreshwar Mahadevi.e., The Lord of Agra was consecrated in it.
10.The tradition of removing the shoes before climbing the marble platform originates from pre Shahjahan times when the Taj was a Shiva Temple. Had the Taj originated as a tomb, shoes need not have to be removed because shoes are a necessity in a cemetery.
11.Visitors may notice that the base slab of the centotaph is the marble basement in plain white while its superstructure and the other three centotaphs on the two floors are covered with inlaid creeper designs. This indicates that the marble pedestal of the Shiva idol is still in place and Mumtaz's centotaphs are fake.
12.The pitchers carved inside the upper border of the marble lattice plus those mounted on it number 108-a number sacred in Hindu Temple tradition.
13.There are persons who are connected with the repair and the maintainance of the Taj who have seen the ancient sacred Shiva Linga and other idols sealed in the thick walls and in chambers in the secret, sealed red stone stories below the marble basement. The Archaeological Survey of India is keeping discretely, politely and diplomatically silent about it to the point of dereliction of its own duty to probe into hidden historical evidence.
14.In India there are 12 Jyotirlingasi.e., the outstanding Shiva Temples. The Tejomahalaya alias The Tajmahal appears to be one of them known as Nagnatheshwar since its parapet is girdled with Naga, i.e., Cobra figures. Ever since Shahjahan's capture of it the sacred temple has lost its Hindudom.
15.The famous Hindu treatise on architecture titled Vishwakarma Vastushastramentions the Tej-Lingaamongst the Shivalingas i.e., the stone emblems of Lord Shiva, the Hindu deity. Such a Tej Linga was consecrated in the Taj Mahal, hence the term Taj Mahal alias Tejo Mahalaya.
16.Agra city, in which the Taj Mahal is located, is an ancient centre of Shiva worship. Its orthodox residents have through ages continued the tradition of worshipping at five Shiva shrines before taking the last meal every night especially during the month of Shravan. During the last few centuries the residents of Agra had to be content with worshipping at only four prominent Shiva temples viz., Balkeshwar, Prithvinath, Manakameshwarand Rajarajeshwar. They had lost track of the fifth Shiva deity which their forefathers worshipped. Apparently the fifth was Agreshwar Mahadev Nagnatheshwari.e., The Lord Great God of Agra, The Deity of the King of Cobras, consecrated in the Tejomahalay alias Tajmahal.
17.The people who dominate the Agra region are Jats. Their name of Shiva is Tejaji. The Jat special issue of The Illustrated Weekly of India (June 28,1971)mentions that the Jats have the Teja Mandirs i.e., Teja Temples. This is because Teja-Linga is among the several names of the Shiva Lingas. From this it is apparent that the Taj-Mahal is Tejo-Mahalaya, The Great Abode of Tej.
18.Shahjahan's own court chronicle, the Badshahnama, admits (page 403, vol 1) that a grand mansion of unique splendor, capped with a dome (Imaarat-a-Alishan wa Gumbaze) was taken from the Jaipur Maharaja Jaisigh for Mumtaz's burial, and the building was known as Raja Mansingh's palace.
19. The plaque put the archealogy department outside the Tajmahal describes the edifice as a mausoleum built by Shahjahan for his wife Mumtaz Mahal, over 22 years from 1631 to 1653 That plaque is a specimen of historical bungling. Firstly, the plaque sites no authority for its claim. Secondly the lady's name was Mumtaz-ulZamani and not Mumtazmahal. Thirdly, the period of 22 years is taken from some mumbo jumbo noting by an unreliable French visitor Tavernier, to the exclusion of all muslim versions, which is an absurdity.
20. Prince Aurangzeb's letter (Refer to Figure 1 above) to his father, emperor Shahjahan, is recorded in atleast three chronicles titled Aadaab-e-Alamgiri, Yadgarnama, and the Muruqqa-i-Akbarabadi(edited by Said Ahmed, Agra, 1931, page 43, footnote 2). In that letter Aurangzeb records in 1652 A.D itself that the several buildings in the fancied burial place of Mumtaz were seven storeyed and were so old that they were all leaking, while the dome had developed a crack on the northern side. Aurangzeb, therefore, ordered immediate repairs to the buildings at his own expense while recommending to the emperor that more elaborate repairs be carried out later. This is the proof that during Shahjahan's reign itself that the Taj complex was so old as to need immediate repairs.
21. The ex-Maharaja of Jaipur retains in his secret personal KapadDwaracollection two orders from Shahjahan dated Dec 18, 1633 (bearing modern nos. R.176 and 177) requestioning the Taj building complex. That was so blatant a usurpation that the then ruler of Jaipur was ashamed to make the document public.
22. The Rajasthan State archives at Bikaner preserve three other firmans addressed by Shahjahan to the Jaipur's ruler Jaisingh ordering the latter to supply marble (for Mumtaz's grave and koranic grafts) from his Makranna quarris, and stone cutters. Jaisingh was apparently so enraged at the blatant seizure of the Tajmahal that he refused to oblige Shahjahan by providing marble for grafting koranic engravings and fake centotaphs for further desecration of the Tajmahal. Jaisingh looked at Shahjahan's demand for marble and stone cutters, as an insult added to injury. Therefore, he refused to send any marble and instead detained the stone cutters in his protective custody.
23. The three firmans demanding marble were sent to Jaisingh within about two years of Mumtaz's death. Had Shahjahan really built the Tajmahal over a period of 22 years, the marble would have needed only after 15 or 20 years not immediately after Mumtaz's death.
24. Moreover, the three mention neither the Tajmahal, nor Mumtaz, nor the burial. The cost and the quantity of the stone also are not mentioned. This proves that an insignificant quantity of marble was needed just for some supercial tinkering and tampering with the Tajmahal. Even otherwise Shahjahan could never hope to build a fabulous Tajmahal by abject dependence for marble on a non cooperative Jaisingh.
European Visitor's Accounts
25. Tavernier, a French jeweller has recorded in his travel memoirs that Shahjahan purposely buried Mumtaz near the Taz-i-Makan (i.e.,`The Taj building') where foriegners used to come as they do even today so that the world may admire. He also adds that the cost of the scaffolding was more than that of the entire work. The work that Shahjahan commissioned in the Tejomahalaya Shiva temple was plundering at the costly fixtures inside it, uprooting the Shiva idols, planting the centotaphs in their place on two stories, inscribing the koran along the arches and walling up six of the seven stories of the Taj. It was this plunder, desecrating and plunderring of the rooms which took 22 years.
26. Peter Mundy, an English visitor to Agra recorded in 1632 (within only a year of Mumtaz's death) that `the places of note in and around Agra, included Taj-e-Mahal's tomb, gardens and bazaars'. He, therefore, confirms that that the Tajmahal had been a noteworthy building even before Shahjahan.
27. De Laet, a Dutch official has listed Mansingh's palace about a mile from Agra fort, as an outstanding building of pre shahjahan's time. Shahjahan's court chronicle, the Badshahnama records, Mumtaz's burial in the same Mansingh's palace.
28. Bernier, a contemporary French visitor has noted that non muslim's were barred entry into the basement (at the time when Shahjahan requisitioned Mansingh's palace) which contained a dazzling light. Obviously, he reffered to the silver doors, gold railing, the gem studded lattice and strings of pearl hanging over Shiva's idol. Shahjahan comandeered the building to grab all the wealth, making Mumtaz's death a convineant pretext.
29. Johan Albert Mandelslo, who describes life in agra in 1638 (only 7 years after mumtaz's death) in detail (in his Voyages and Travels to West-Indies, published by John Starkey and John Basset, London), makes no mention of the Tajmahal being under constuction though it is commonly erringly asserted or assumed that the Taj was being built from 1631 to 1653.
30. A Sanskrit inscription too supports the conclusion that the Taj originated as a Shiva temple. Wrongly termed as the Bateshwar inscription (currently preserved on the top floor of the Lucknow museum), it refers to the raising of a "crystal white Shiva temple so alluring that Lord Shiva once enshrined in it decided never to return to Mount Kailash his usual abode". That inscription dated 1155 A.D. was removed from the Tajmahal garden at Shahjahan's orders. Historicians and Archeaologists have blundered in terming the insription the Bateshwar inscriptionwhen the record doesn't say that it was found by Bateshwar. It ought, in fact, to be called The Tejomahalaya inscriptionbecause it was originally installed in the Taj garden before it was uprooted and cast away at Shahjahan's command.
A clue to the tampering by Shahjahan is found on pages 216-217, vol. 4, of Archealogiical Survey of India Reports (published 1874) stating that a "great square black balistic pillar which, with the base and capital of another pillar....now in the grounds of Agra, ...it is well known, once stood in the garden of Tajmahal".
31. Far from the building of the Taj, Shahjahan disfigured it with black koranic lettering and heavily robbed it of its Sanskrit inscription, several idols and two huge stone elephants extending their trunks in a welcome arch over the gateway where visitors these days buy entry tickets. An Englishman, Thomas Twinning, records (pg.191 of his book "Travels in India A Hundred Years ago") that in November 1794 "I arrived at the high walls which enclose the Taj-e-Mahal and its circumjacent buildings. I here got out of the palanquine and.....mounted a short flight of steps leading to a beautiful portal which formed the centre of this side of the Court Of Elephantsas the great area was called."
32. The Taj Mahal is scrawled over with 14 chapters of the Koran but nowhere is there even the slightest or the remotest allusion in that Islamic overwriting to Shahjahan's authorship of the Taj. Had Shahjahan been the builder he would have said so in so many words before beginning to quote Koran.
33. That Shahjahan, far from building the marble Taj, only disfigured it with black lettering is mentioned by the inscriber Amanat Khan Shirazi himself in an inscription on the building. A close scrutiny of the Koranic lettering reveals that they are grafts patched up with bits of variegated stone on an ancient Shiva temple.
Carbon 14 Test
34. A wooden piece from the riverside doorway of the Taj subjected to the carbon 14 test by an American Laboratory and initiated by Professors at Pratt School of Architecture, New York, has revealed that the door to be 300 years older than Shahjahan,since the doors of the Taj, broken open by Muslim invaders repeatedly from the 11th century onwards, had to b replaced from time to time. The Taj edifice is much more older. It belongs to 1155 A.D, i.e., almost 500 years anterior to Shahjahan.
35. Well known Western authorities on architechture like E.B.Havell, Mrs.Kenoyer and Sir W.W.Hunterhave gone on record to say that the TajMahal is built in the Hindu temple style. Havell points out the ground plan of the ancient Hindu Chandi Seva Temple in Java is identical with that of the Taj.
36. A central dome with cupolas at its four corners is a universal feature of Hindu temples.
37. The four marble pillars at the plinth corners are of the Hindu style. They are used as lamp towers during night and watch towers during the day. Such towers serve to demarcate the holy precincts. Hindu wedding altars and the altar set up for God Satyanarayan worship have pillars raised at the four corners.
38. The octagonal shape of the Tajmahal has a special Hindu significance because Hindus alone have special names for the eight directions, and celestial guards assigned to them. The pinnacle points to the heaven while the foundation signifies to the nether world. Hindu forts, cities, palaces and temples genrally have an octagonal layout or some octagonal features so that together with the pinnacle and the foundation they cover all the ten directions in which the king or God holds sway, according to Hindu belief.
39. The Tajmahal has a trident pinncle over the dome. A full scale of the trident pinnacle is inlaid in the red stone courtyard to the east of the Taj. The central shaft of the trident depicts a Kalash(sacred pot) holding two bent mango leaves and a coconut. This is a sacred Hindu motif. Identical pinnacles have been seen over Hindu and Buddhist temples in the Himalayan region. Tridents are also depicted against a red lotus background at the apex of the stately marble arched entrances on all four sides of the Taj. People fondly but mistakenly believed all these centuries that the Taj pinnacle depicts a Islamic cresent and star was a lighting conductor installed by the British rulers in India. Contrarily, the pinnacle is a marvel of Hindu metallurgy since the pinnacle made of non rusting alloy, is also perhaps a lightning deflector. That the pinnacle of the replica is drawn in the eastern courtyard is significant because the east is of special importance to the Hindus, as the direction in which the sun rises. The pinnacle on the dome has the word `Allah' on it after capture. The pinnacle figure on the ground does not have the word Allah.
40. The two buildings which face the marble Taj from the east and west are identical in design, size and shape and yet the eastern building is explained away by Islamic tradition, as a community hall while the western building is claimed to be a mosque. How could buildings meant for radically different purposes be identical? This proves that the western building was put to use as a mosque after seizure of the Taj property by Shahjahan. Curiously enough the building being explained away as a mosque has no minaret. They form a pair af reception pavilions of the Tejomahalaya temple palace.
41. A few yards away from the same flank is the Nakkar Khana alias DrumHouse which is a intolerable incongruity for Islam. The proximity of the Drum House indicates that the western annex was not originally a mosque. Contrarily a drum house is a neccesity in a Hindu temple or palace because Hindu chores,in the morning and evening, begin to the sweet strains of music.
42. The embossed patterns on the marble exterior of the centotaph chamber wall are foilage of the conch shell design and the Hindu letter OM. The octagonally laid marble lattices inside the centotaph chamber depict pink lotuses on their top railing. The Lotus, the conch and the OMare the sacred motifs associated with the Hindu deities and temples.
43. The spot occupied by Mumtaz's centotaph was formerly occupied by the Hindu Teja Linga a lithic representation of Lord Shiva. Around it are five perambulatory passages. Perambulation could be done around the marble lattice or through the spacious marble chambers surrounding the centotaph chamber, and in the open over the marble platform. It is also customary for the Hindus to have apertures along the perambulatory passage, overlooking the deity. Such apertures exist in the perambulatories in the Tajmahal.
44. The sanctom sanctorum in the Taj has silver doors and gold railings as Hindu temples have. It also had nets of pearl and gems stuffed in the marble lattices. It was the lure of this wealth which made Shahjahan commandeer the Taj from a helpless vassal Jaisingh, the then ruler of Jaipur.
45. Peter Mundy, a Englishman records (in 1632, within a year of Mumtaz's death) having seen a gem studded gold railing around her tomb. Had the Taj been under construction for 22 years, a costly gold railing would not have been noticed by Peter mundy within a year of Mumtaz's death. Such costl fixtures are installed in a building only after it is ready for use. This indicates that Mumtaz's centotaph was grafted in place of the Shivalinga in the centre of the gold railings. Subsequently the gold railings, silver doors, nets of pearls, gem fillings etc. were all carried away to Shahjahan's treasury. The seizure of the Taj thus constituted an act of highhanded Moghul robery causing a big row between Shahjahan and Jaisingh.
46. In the marble flooring around Mumtaz's centotaph may be seen tiny mosaic patches. Those patches indicate the spots where the support for the gold railings were embedded in the floor. They indicate a rectangular fencing.
47. Above Mumtaz's centotaph hangs a chain by which now hangs a lamp. Before capture by Shahjahan the chain used to hold a water pitcher from which water used to drip on the Shivalinga.
48. It is this earlier Hindu tradition in the Tajmahal which gave the Islamic myth of Shahjahan's love tear dropping on Mumtaz's tomb on the full moon day of the winter eve.
49. Between the so-called mosque and the drum house is a multistoried octagonal well with a flight of stairs reaching down to the water level. This is a traditional treasury well in Hindu temple palaces. Treasure chests used to be kept in the lower apartments while treasury personnel had their offices in the upper chambers. The circular stairs made it difficult for intruders to reach down to the treasury or to escape with it undetected or unpursued. In case the premises had to be surrendered to a besieging enemy the treasure could be pushed into the well to remain hidden from the conquerer and remain safe for salvaging if the place was reconquered. Such an elaborate multistoried well is superflous for a mere mausoleum. Such a grand, gigantic well is unneccesary for a tomb.
Burial Date Unknown
50. Had Shahjahan really built the Taj Mahal as a wonder mausoleum, history would have recorded a specific date on which she was ceremoniously buried in the Taj Mahal. No such date is ever mentioned. This important missing detail decisively exposes the falsity of the Tajmahal legend.
51. Even the year of Mumtaz's death is unknown. It is variously speculated to be 1629, 1630, 1631 or 1632. Had she deserved a fabulous burial, as is claimed, the date of her death had not been a matter of much speculation. In an harem teeming with 5000 womenit was difficult to keep track of dates of death. Apparently the date of Mumtaz's death was so insignificant an event, as not to merit any special notice. Who would then build a Taj for her burial?
Baseless Love Stories
52. Stories of Shahjahan's exclusive infatuation for Mumtaz's are concoctions. They have no basis in history nor has any book ever written on their fancied love affairs. Those stories have been invented as an afterthought to make Shahjahan's authorship of the Taj look plausible.
53. The cost of the Taj is nowhere recorded in Shahjahan's court papers because Shahjahan never built the Tajmahal. That is why wild estimates of the cost by gullible writers have ranged from 4 million to 91.7 million rupees.
Period Of Construction
54. Likewise the period of construction has been guessed to be anywhere between 10 years and 22 years. There would have not been any scope for guesswork had the building construction been on record in the court papers.
55. The designer of the Tajmahal is also variously mentioned as Essa Effendy, a Persian or Turk, or Ahmed Mehendis or a Frenchman, Austin deBordeaux, or Geronimo Veroneo, an Italian, or Shahjahan himself.
Records Don't Exist
56. Twenty thousand labourers are supposed to have worked for 22 years during Shahjahan's reign in building the Tajmahal. Had this been true, there should have been available in Shahjahan's court papers design drawings, heaps of labour muster rolls, daily expenditure sheets, bills and receipts of material ordered, and commisioning orders. There is not even a scrap of paper of this kind.
57. It is, therefore, court flatterers, blundering historians, somnolent archeologists, fiction writers, senile poets, careless tourists officials and erring guides who are responsible for hustling the world into believing in Shahjahan's mythical authorship of the Taj.
58. Description of the gardens around the Taj of Shahjahan's time mention Ketaki, Jai, Jui, Champa, Maulashree, Harshringar and Bel. All these are plants whose flowers or leaves are used in the worship of Hindu deities. Bel leaves are exclusively used in Lord Shiva's worship. A graveyard is planted only with shady trees because the idea of using fruit and flower from plants in a cemetary is abhorrent to human conscience. The presence of Bel and other flower plants in the Taj garden is proof of its having been a Shiva temple before seizure by Shahjahan.
59. Hindu temples are often built on river banks and sea beaches. The Taj is one such built on the bank of the Yamuna river an ideal location for a Shiva temple.
60. Prophet Mohammad has ordained that the burial spot of a muslim should be inconspicous and must not be marked by even a single tombstone. In flagrant violation of this, the Tajamhal has one grave in the basement and another in the first floor chamber both ascribed to Mumtaz. Those two centotaphs were infact erected by Shahjahan to bury the two tier Shivalingas that were consecrated in the Taj. It is customary for Hindus to install two Shivalingas one over the other in two stories as may be seen in the Mahankaleshwar temple in Ujjain and the Somnath temple raised by Ahilyabai in Somnath Pattan.
61. The Tajmahal has identical entrance arches on all four sides. This is a typical Hindu building style known as Chaturmukhi, i.e., four faced.
The Hindu Dome
62. The Tajmahal has a reverberating dome. Such a dome is an absurdity for a tomb which must ensure peace and silence. Contrarily reverberating domes are a neccesity in Hindu temples because they create an ecstatic dinmultiplying and magnifying the sound of bells, drums and pipes accompanying the worship of Hindu deities.
63. The Tajmahal dome bears a lotus cap. Original Islamic domes have a bald top as is exemplified by the Pakistan Embassy in Chanakyapuri, New Delhi, and the domes in the Pakistan's newly built capital Islamabad.
64. The Tajmahal entrance faces south. Had the Taj been an Islamic building it should have faced the west.
Tomb is the Grave, not the Building
65. A widespread misunderstanding has resulted in mistaking the building for the grave.Invading Islam raised graves in captured buildings in every country it overran. Therefore, hereafter people must learn not to confound the building with the grave mounds which are grafts in conquered buildings. This is true of the Tajmahal too. One may therefore admit (for arguments sake) that Mumtaz lies buried inside the Taj. But that should not be construed to mean that the Taj was raised over Mumtaz's grave.
66. The Taj is a seven storied building. Prince Aurangzeb also mentions this in his letter to Shahjahan (Refer to the Figure 1 above). The marble edifice comprises four stories including the lone, tall circular hall inside the top, and the lone chamber in the basement. In between are two floors each containing 12 to 15 palatial rooms. Below the marble plinth reaching down to the river at the rear are two more stories in red stone. They may be seen from the river bank. The seventh storey must be below the ground (river) level since every ancient Hindu building had a subterranian storey.
67. Immediately bellow the marble plinth on the river flank are 22 rooms in red stone with their ventilators all walled up by Shahjahan. Those rooms, made uninhibitably by Shahjahan, are kept locked by Archealogy Department of India. The lay visitor is kept in the dark about them. Those 22 rooms still bear ancient Hindu paint on their walls and ceilings. On their side is a nearly 33 feet long corridor. There are two door frames one at either end ofthe corridor. But those doors are intriguingly sealed with brick and lime.
68. Apparently those doorways originally sealed by Shahjahan have been since unsealed and again walled up several times. In 1934 a resident of Delhi took a peep inside from an opening in the upper part of the doorway. To his dismay he saw huge hall inside. It contained many statues huddled around a central beheaded image of Lord Shiva. It could be that, in there, are Sanskrit inscriptions too. All the seven stories of the Tajmahal need to be unsealed and scoured to ascertain what evidence they may be hiding in the form of Hindu images, Sanskrit inscriptions, scriptures, coins and utensils.
69. Apart from Hindu images hidden in the sealed stories it is also learnt that Hindu images are also stored in the massive walls of the Taj. Between 1959 and 1962 when Mr. S.R. Rao was the Archealogical Superintendent in Agra, he happened to notice a deep and wide crack in the wall of the central octagonal chamber of the Taj. When a part of the wall was dismantled to study the crack out popped two or three marble images. The matter was hushed up and the images were reburied where they had been embedded at Shahjahan's behest. Confirmation of this has been obtained from several sources. It was only when I began my investigation into the antecedents of the Taj I came across the above information which had remained a forgotten secret. What better proof is needed of the Temple origin of the Tajmahal? Its walls and sealed chambers still hide in Hindu idols that were consecrated in it before Shahjahan's seizure of the Taj.
Pre-Shahjahan References to the Taj
70. Apparently the Taj as a central palace seems to have an chequered history. The Taj was perhaps desecrated and looted by every Muslim invader from Mohammad Ghazni onwards but passing into Hindu hands off and on, the sanctity of the Taj as a Shiva temple continued to be revived after every muslim onslaught. Shahjahan was the last muslim to desecrate the Tajmahal alias Tejomahalay.
71. Vincent Smith records in his book titled `Akbar the Great Moghul' that `Babur's turbulent life came to an end in his garden palace in Agra in 1630'. That palace was none other than the Tajmahal.
72. Babur's daughter Gulbadan Begum in her chronicle titled Humayun Namarefers to the Taj as the Mystic House.
73. Babur himself refers to the Taj in his memoirs as the palace captured by Ibrahim Lodi containing a central octagonal chamber and having pillars on the four sides. All these historical references allude to the Taj 100 years before Shahjahan.
74. The Tajmahal precincts extend to several hundred yards in all directions. Across the river are ruins of the annexes of the Taj, the bathing ghats and a jetty for the ferry boat. In the Victoria gardens outside covered with creepers is the long spur of the ancient outer wall ending in a octagonal red stone tower. Such extensive grounds all magnificently done up, are a superfluity for a grave.
75. Had the Taj been specially built to bury Mumtaz, it should not have been cluttered with other graves. But the Taj premises contain several graves atleast in its eastern and southern pavilions.
76. In the southern flank, on the other side of the Tajganj gate are buried in identical pavilions queens Sarhandi Begum, and Fatehpuri Begum and a maid Satunnisa Khanum. Such parity burial can be justified only if the queens had been demoted or the maid promoted. But since Shahjahan had commandeered (not built) the Taj, he reduced it general to a muslim cemetary as was the habit of all his Islamic predeccssors, and buried a queen in a vacant pavillion and a maid in another idenitcal pavilion.
77. Shahjahan was married to several other women before and after Mumtaz. She, therefore, deserved no special consideration in having a wonder mausoleum built for her.
78. Mumtaz was a commoner by birth and so she did not qualify for a fairyland burial.
79. Mumtaz died in Burhanpur which is about 600 miles from Agra. Her grave there is intact. Therefore, the centotaphs raised in stories of the Taj in her name seem to be fakes hiding in Hindu Shiva emblems.
80. Shahjahan seems to have simulated Mumtaz's burial in Agra to find a pretext to surround the temple palace with his fierce and fanatic troops and remove all the costly fixtures in his treasury. This finds confirmation in the vague noting in the Badshahnama which says that the Mumtaz's (exhumed) body was brought to Agra from Burhanpur and buried `next year'. An official term would not use a nebulous term unless it is to hide some thing.
81. A pertinent consideration is that a Shahjahan who did not build any palaces for Mumtaz while she was alive, would not build a fabulous mausoleum for a corpse which was no longer kicking or clicking.
82. Another factor is that Mumtaz died within two or three years of Shahjahan becoming an emperor. Could he amass so much superflous wealth in that short span as to squander it on a wonder mausoleum?
83. While Shahjahan's special attachment to Mumtaz is nowhere recorded in history his amorous affairs with many other ladies from maids to mannequins including his own daughter Jahanara, find special attention in accounts of Shahjahan's reign. Would Shahjahan shower his hard earned wealth on Mumtaz's corpse?
84. Shahjahan was a stingy, usurious monarch. He came to throne murdering all his rivals. He was not therefore, the doting spendthrift that he is made out to be.
85. A Shahjahan disconsolate on Mumtaz's death is suddenly credited with a resolve to build the Taj. This is a psychological incongruity. Grief is a disabling, incapacitating emotion.
86. A infatuated Shahjahan is supposed to have raised the Taj over the dead Mumtaz, but carnal, physical sexual love is again a incapacitating emotion. A womaniser is ipso facto incapable of any constructive activity. When carnal love becomes uncontrollable the person either murders somebody or commits suicide. He cannot raise a Tajmahal. A building like the Taj invariably originates in an ennobling emotion like devotion to God, to one's mother and mother country or power and glory.
87. Early in the year 1973, chance digging in the garden in front of the Taj revealed another set of fountains about six feet below the present fountains. This proved two things. Firstly, the subterranean fountains were there before Shahjahan laid the surface fountains. And secondly that those fountains are aligned to the Taj that edifice too is of pre Shahjahan origin. Apparently the garden and its fountains had sunk from annual monsoon flooding and lack of maintenance for centuries during the Islamic rule.
88. The stately rooms on the upper floor of the Tajmahal have been striped of their marble mosaic by Shahjahan to obtain matching marble for raising fake tomb stones inside the Taj premises at several places. Contrasting with the rich finished marble ground floor rooms the striping of the marble mosaic covering the lower half of the walls and flooring of the upper storey have given those rooms a naked, robbed look. Since no visitors are allowed entry to the upper storey this despoilation by Shahjahan has remained a well guarded secret. There is no reason why Shahjahan's loot of the upper floor marble should continue to be hidden from the public even after 200 years of termination of Moghul rule.
89. Bernier, the French traveller has recorded that no non muslim was allowed entry into the secret nether chambers of the Taj because there are some dazzling fixtures there. Had those been installed by Shahjahan they should have been shown the public as a matter of pride. But since it was commandeered Hindu wealth which Shahjahan wanted to remove to his treasury, he didn't want the public to know about it.
90. The approach to Taj is dotted with hillocks raised with earth dugout from foundation trenches. The hillocks served as outer defences of the Taj building complex. Raising such hillocks from foundation earth, is a common Hindu device of hoary origin. Nearby Bharatpur provides a graphic parallel. Peter Mundy has recorded that Shahjahan employed thousands of labourers to level some of those hillocks. This is a graphic proof of the Tajmahal existing before Shahjahan.
91. At the backside of the river bank is a Hindu crematorium, several palaces, Shiva temples and bathings of ancient origin. Had Shahjahan built the Tajmahal, he would have destroyed the Hindu features.
92. The story that Shahjahan wanted to build a Black marble Taj across the river, is another motivated myth. The ruins dotting the other side of the river are those of Hindu structures demolished during muslim invasions and not the plinth of another Tajmahal. Shahjahan who did not even build the white Tajmahal would hardly ever think of building a black marble Taj. He was so miserly that he forced labourers to work gratis even in the superficial tampering neccesary to make a Hindu temple serve as a Muslim tomb.
93. The marble that Shahjahan used for grafting Koranic lettering in the Taj is of a pale white shade while the rest of the Taj is built of a marble with rich yellow tint. This disparity is proof of the Koranic extracts being a superimposition.
94. Though imaginative attempts have been made by some historians to foist some fictitious name on history as the designer of the Taj others more imaginative have credited Shajahan himself with superb architechtural proficiency and artistic talent which could easily concieve and plan the Taj even in acute bereavment. Such people betray gross ignorance of history in as much as Shajahan was a cruel tyrant ,a great womaniser and a drug and drink addict.
95. Fanciful accounts about Shahjahan commisioning the Taj are all confused. Some asserted that Shahjahan ordered building drawing from all over the world and chose one from among them. Others assert that a man at hand was ordered to design a mausoleum amd his design was approved. Had any of those versions been true Shahjahan's court papers should have had thousands of drawings concerning the Taj. But there is not even a single drawing. This is yet another clinching proof that Shahjahan did not commision the Taj.
96. The Tajmahal is surrounded by huge mansions which indicate that several battles have been waged around the Taj several times.
97. At the south east corner of the Taj is an ancient royal cattle house. Cows attached to the Tejomahalay temple used to reared there. A cowshed is an incongruity in an Islamic tomb.
98. Over the western flank of the Taj are several stately red stone annexes. These are superflous for a mausoleum.
99. The entire Taj complex comprises of 400 to 500 rooms. Residential accomodation on such a stupendous scale is unthinkable in a mausoleum.
100. The neighbouring Tajganj township's massive protective wall also encloses the Tajmahal temple palace complex. This is a clear indication that the Tejomahalay temple palace was part and parcel of the township. A street of that township leads straight into the Tajmahal. The Tajganj gate is aligned in a perfect straight line to the octagonal red stone garden gate and the stately entrance arch of the Tajmahal. The Tajganj gatebesides being central to the Taj temple complex, is also put on a pedestal. The western gate by which the visitors enter the Taj complex is a camparatively minor gateway. It has become the entry gate for most visitors today because the railway station and the bus station are on that side.
101. The Tajmahal has pleasure pavillions which a tomb would never have.
102. A tiny mirror glass in a gallery of the Red Fort in Agra reflects the Taj mahal. Shahjahan is said to have spent his last eight years of life as a prisoner in that gallery peering at the reflected Tajmahal and sighing in the name of Mumtaz. This myth is a blend of many falsehoods. Firstly, old Shajahan was held prisoner by his son Aurangzeb in the basement storey in the Fort and not in an open, fashionable upper storey. Secondly, the glass piece was fixed in the 1930's by Insha Allah Khan, a peon of the archaelogy dept.just to illustrate to the visitors how in ancient times the entire apartment used to scintillate with tiny mirror pieces reflecting the Tejomahalay temple a thousand fold. Thirdly, a old decrepit Shahjahan with pain in his joints and cataract in his eyes, would not spend his day craning his neck at an awkward angle to peer into a tiny glass piece with bedimmed eyesight when he could as well his face around and have full, direct view of the Tjamahal itself. But the general public is so gullible as to gulp all such prattle of wily, unscrupulous guides.
103. That the Tajmahal dome has hundreds of iron rings sticking out of its exterior is a feature rarely noticed. These are made to hold Hindu earthen oil lamps for temple illumination.
104. Those putting implicit faith in Shahjahan authorship of the Taj have been imagining Shahjahan-Mumtaz to be a soft hearted romantic pair like Romeo and Juliet. But contemporary accounts speak of Shahjahan as a hard hearted ruler who was constantly egged on to acts of tyranny and cruelty, by Mumtaz.
105. School and College history carry the myth that Shahjahan reign was a golden period in which there was peace and plenty and that Shahjahan commisioned many buildings and patronized literature. This is pure fabrication. Shahjahan did not commision even a single building as we have illustrated by a detailed analysis of the Tajmahal legend. Shahjahn had to enrage in 48 military campaigns during a reign of nearly 30 years which proves that his was not a era of peace and plenty.
106. The interior of the dome rising over Mumtaz's centotaph has a representation of Sun and cobras drawn in gold. Hindu warriors trace their origin to the Sun. For an Islamic mausoleum the Sun is redundant. Cobras are always associated with Lord Shiva.
107. The muslim caretakers of the tomb in the Tajmahal used to possess a document which they styled as Tarikh-i-Tajmahal. Historian H.G. Keene has branded it as a document of doubtful authenticity. Keene was uncannily right since we have seen that Shahjahan not being the creator of the Tajmahal any document which credits Shahjahn with the Tajmahal, must be an outright forgery. Even that forged document is reported to have been smuggled out of Pakistan. Besides such forged documents there are whole chronicles on the Taj which are pure concoctions.
108. There is lot of sophistry and casuistry or atleast confused thinking associated with the Taj even in the minds of proffesional historians, archaelogists and architects. At the outset they assert that the Taj is entirely Muslim in design. But when it is pointed out that its lotus capped dome and the four corner pillars etc. are all entirely Hindu those worthies shift ground and argue that that was probably because the workmen were Hindu and were to introduce their own patterns. Both these arguments are wrong because Muslim accounts claim the designers to be Muslim, and the workers invariably carry out the employer's dictates.
The Taj is only a typical illustration of how all historic buildings and townships from Kashmir to Cape Comorin though of Hindu origin have been ascribed to this or that Muslim ruler or courtier.
It is hoped that people the world over who study Indian history will
awaken to this new finding and revise their erstwhile beliefs.
Those interested in an indepth study of the above and many other revolutionary rebuttals may read Shri P.N. Oak's other research books.
A similar article from PN Oak 110 points: http://www.flex.com/~jai/articles/tajmahal.html