Psychopaths, Sandwiches, and Asuric Varnasrama-dharma
Posted On: Tue, 2007-06-05 03:22 by josh sitapati

My apologies to Ekendra, and to anyone else who misread my last post as accusing Ekendra of being a psychopath. Everyone who knows Ekendra knows that he is a sociopath, not a psychopath - just kidding! :-)

On the subject of psychopaths, here is a check list to help you to know if you are one (I have some characteristics that look like these, but I'm missing a few of the internal mechanics, probably due to devotional service). Clinically there are 20 characteristics. Here are six principle ones:

1. Guiltless: The psychopath shows no remorse no matter how much they victimize, back-stab or steal credit.
2. Charming: They are very good talkers. They prefer to operate one-on-one and will avoid group meetings.
3. Manipulative: They bend the corporate systems and rules for their own advantage. They prey on people's weaknesses, particularly low self esteem.
4. Parasitic: They take credit for other people's work.
5. Pathological liars: The workplace psychopath is not a good liar. However, when discovered they can talk their way out of trouble.
6. Erratic: Psychopaths only experience primary emotions (happy, sad, anger). They will also shift between emotions very quickly, one minute being happy, the next being angry and the next sad.

Statistically 0.5% of women, and 2% of men are psychopaths. I guess that we would define them in the language of Bhagavad-gita as "demons", as distinguished from "devotees", and the majority of people who are characterised as "innocent".

Research shows that psychopaths are deficient in empathy - they are physically incapable of feeling others' pain. In clinical tests they show no involuntary reaction to pictures of people crying. This has a biological basis, rather than simply a psychological one.

From the wikipedia entry on Psychopathy:
It is thought that any emotions which the primary psychopath exhibits are the fruits of watching and mimicking other people's emotions. They show poor impulse control and a low tolerance for frustration and aggression. They have no empathy, remorse, anxiety or guilt in relation to their behavior. In short, they truly are devoid of conscience. However, they understand that society expects them to behave in a conscientious manner, and therefore they mimic this behavior when it suits their needs.

Psychopaths cannot be rehabilitated, according to criminal psychologist Dr John Clarke, author of The Pocket Psycho, a survival guide on how to protect yourself from the organizational psychopath.:
They don't care. They don't think of themselves as psychopaths. They don't think they are doing wrong. They just think they are smart and if everyone else had the same intelligence, they would do the same thing, When you rehabilitate them, you teach them social skills and show them how to deal with people appropriately. They will then use those social skills to better manipulate people.

Wikipedia again:
It has been shown that punishment and behavior modification techniques do not improve the behavior of a psychopath. They have been regularly observed to respond to both by becoming more cunning and hiding their behavior better. It has been suggested that traditional therapeutic approaches actually make them, if not worse, then far more adept at manipulating others and concealing their behavior. They are generally considered to be not only incurable but also untreatable.

Now the sandwich:

Venkata Bhatta recently wrote a great post about the feedback sandwich - a technique for delivering feedback where you first give some positive feedback (praise), followed by negative feedback (criticism), followed by positive feedback (praise).

In this post he talks about limitations of this technique:
Recently a colleague told me that she has started to grow wary of the sandwich -- that when she hears my words of praise she starts to cringe in preparation of the impending criticism! Her telling me this was a sobering reminder to me that merely "buttering someone up" before and after you "give them the sauce" does not a sandwich make.

Venkata then goes on to share some advice on how to use this effectively, and most importantly, with integrity. All forms of leadership or management technique become forms of manipulation in the hands of a person who is lacking integrity. Unfortunately, this is the core identity of the psychopath. As Venkata Bhatta concludes, ultimately it's a question of spiritual and emotional maturity of the person employing the technique - and this is something that a psychopath (demon) cannot have.

Teaching these kinds of techniques to these people is dangerous. Demons should never be given instruction in any form of knowledge, according to Vedic injunction.

In the hands of the psychopath (demon), every imaginable technique or ability becomes damaging to others. One form of asuric varnasrama-dharma, or demonic human life, is that practiced by psychopaths who use their knowledge of human potential development for their own egoistic purposes, crushing others along the way, rather than for serving others, and ultimately Visnu.

King Jarasandha, and one of the central characters of the great history Mahabharata, King Duryodhana, fall into this category.

As we discussed on Sunday's radio show, when development of bodily and mental potential takes place outside of the context of spiritual knowledge, the results are disastrous. As Akrura das from Bhaktivedanta Coaching put it: "Coaching minus Krishna Consciousness expands the material false ego".

The difference between demigods and sadhus, Srila Bhakti Tirtha Swami once explained to me, is that demigods will uplift others as they pursue their own sense gratification. It is a contamination of the sattva-guna to want to be the helper and benefactor of others. Real sadhus, or saints, on the other hand, will benefact others with no selfish motivation.

Varnasrama-dharma, human life, is established by sadhus, saints, for the majority of people to become devotees (demigods) by pursuing their sense gratification in a way that uplifts them and others. The same structures of human life, including knowledge of the development of the body and mind, is co-opted by psychopathic persons (demons), and this practice is known as asuric varnasrama-dharma.

Dr Clarke recommends education and team-building to neutralize the influence of psychopaths in organisations.

Related to psychopathy is sociopathy. Sociopathy does not have the same biological basis that psychopathy does - it is due to environmental causes. While a sociopathic person exhibits many of the same behavioural traits as a psychopath, they can be reformed. A psychopath cannot. If you are insincere, then no-one can help you.

Sociopathy represents a covering of karma from experiences in this lifetime. Psychopathy represents a base guna from activities in the past lifetime. Generally the overcoming of the guna of psychopathy involves the extinguishing of this body. There may be some other extraordinary manifestation of causeless mercy, but that is the general situation. Demonic mentality can be killed if it is a superficial contamination of the living entity's mental structure. If it is the structure itself, it's a different story.

As a recovering sociopath (demon turned devotee), I have some insight into it...

See the following for further insights:

When one looks at the two schools mentioned in the above article (Psychopathy and Sociopathy) with the concepts below of deviation and those qualified for reform the picture fits together nicely.

Deviants - Deviation - Deviators

It's a very harsh sounding word that may be broadly sweeping in a statement, that may even to as much harm as good in identifying a particular type of behaviour known as acikitsya.

Deviants Disqualified persons

The three classes who are disqualified from entry into pure devotional service are 1) the ignorant (i.e. mudhas who "just don't get it"); 2) the weak (as you've described above); and the acikitsya-aparadhi (incurable offenders).  The first 2 can be rectified by good association.  But the 3rd class is like the proverbial serpent sipping at the milk...their poison is only increased by association with devotees.  Their problem is that a little knowledge, half-baked as it might be, goes to their head--they become puffed-up and think they are the best devotees on earth, descended to lead all the other devotees along the right path, i.e. the path of their own speculations.

So this 3rd class is the hard core from which the apasampradayas develop, and the 1st and 2nd become their followers if they unfortunate to miss or to spoil the chance of proper Vaisnava-sanga.  So the 3 class are a perverted reflection of kanistha, madhyama and uttama-adhikaris.

Info such as this I got from a book called Apasampradaya-svarupa, written by a Godbrother of Srila Prabhupada.  In the book the author (would have to look the name up) stated that Jiva gosvami mentions the acikitsya class in his Sandarbhas.  I have not verified that, however.

From HH Suhotra swami

Date: Mon, 23 Feb 2004 18:13:07 -0800 (PST)
From: Suhotra Swami

More of the same from Tripurari Swami:

05/15/01 05:29 AM

In a standard Sanskrit dictionary, the word sampradaya is defined as "genuine instruction that has been received through guru parampara or disciplic succession" (guru paramparagatu sad upadesasya). The prefix sam indicates connection, while the stem is a cognate of pradhana, "source". In the fourth chapter of Bhagavad-gita, Lord Krsna declares Himself to be the original source of the transcendental science of bhakti-yoga, and He confirms that one is connected to this knowledge only through guru-parampara.

In the vocabulary of Western religious traditions, sampradaya really has no exact equivalent. One might be tempted to employ "orthodoxy", but as a noted German Sanskritist has pointed out, this word really applies to matters of doctrine, not practice. Admission into a sampradaya does not only depend upon a theoretically correct grasp of Krsna's teachings. The candidate must practically demonstrate his learning through strict adherance to the purified lifestyle (acara) set down by great saintly teachers (acaryas).

"One is understood to be in full knowledge whose every endeavor is devoid of desire for sense grati- fication. He is said by the sages to be a worker for whom the reactions of karma have been burned up by the fire of perfect knowledge."

(Bhagavad-gita 4.19)

Pure acara automatically expands into pure pracara (preaching), upacara (Deity worship) and all other devotional activities. By such purity, the devotee becomes eligible to enjoy the higher taste of transcendence (param drstva) that is spoken of by Krsna in Bhagavad-gita 2.59, which satisfies all desires at their very root, within the soul itself. Thus the lower taste for meat-eating, illicit sex, gambling and intoxication is lost; consciousness firmly settles into sinlessness, and the devotee gradually becomes qualified to enter the rasa of Sri Krsna's personal association. Raso vai sah rasam hy evayam labdhvanandi bhavati, declares the Tattiriya Upanisad: "When one understands the Personality of Godhead, the reservoir of pleasure, Krsna, he actually becomes transcendentally blissful."

The genuineness of a sampradaya or a person representing a sampradaya is primarily determined by spiritual quality (sarva maha-guna-gana vaisnava- sarire - "A Vaisnava is one who has developed all good qualities", Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Madhya 22.75). The good qualities of the Vaisnava are actually krsnera-guna, Krsna's own, and they appear in the devotee through his exchange of rasa with the Lord. The Lord's transcendental qualities are unlimited (ananta krsnera-guna), and His devotees are likewise unlimited. This combination precipitates different moods of love of Godhead, which are visible in the persons of great acaryas who have descended into this world to teach genuine Vaisnava qualities via the sampradaya system.

Even when he seems to be at variance with other acaryas on certain matters of detail, it is clear that a real acarya is situated in perfect knowledge because he 1) is free from vice, 2) exhibits the good qualities of a Vaisnava, and 3) accepts Visnu-tattva as Supreme. Differences between the teachings of acaryas are due to their individual moods of love for the Lord.

"What Madhvacarya understands, we also understand ... What Ramanuja understands, we also understand. What Caitanya Mahaprabhu undestands, we also understand. So there is no difference ... That is Vaisnava. All the Vaisnavas understand that Visnu is the Supreme. There may be, sometimes, such as Krsna is understood as incarnation of Visnu, and sometimes they understand Visnu as the incarnation of Krsna. That is sampradaya. That is sampradaya. But either Krsna or Visnu, He is Supreme, that is accepted by all ... If I love somebody, I'll say he is first. And if you love somebody, you'll say he is first. But both of them same ... Hanumanji, he'll never accept Krsna. And the gopis will never accept Rama or Visnu."

(His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Svami Prabhupada, conversation, May 6, 1975)

Admission into a sampradaya ultimately depends upon the aspirant's submission to the mood of the acarya through strict adherence to the acara he teaches. When asked what constitutes the personal relationship of a disciple to his spiritual master, Srila Prabhupada answered, "To obey your spiritual master. Whatever he has said, you follow strictly. Follow the regulative principles. Chant sixteen rounds. That's all." (SP con A.C. Bhaktivedanta Svami Prabhupada, conversation, May 6, 1975)

"There are four lines of disciplic succession: one from Lord Brahma, one from Lord Siva, one from Laksmi, the goddess of fortune, and one from the Kumaras. The disciplic succession from Lord Brahma is called the Brahma-sampradaya, the succession from Lord Siva (Sambhu) is called the Rudra-sampradaya, the one from the goddess of fortune, Laksmiji, is called the Sri-sampradaya, and the one from the Kumaras is called the Kumara-sampradaya. One must take shelter of one these four sampradayas in order to understand the most confidential religious system. In the Padma Purana it is said, sampradaya-vihina ye mantras te nisphala matah: if one does not follow the four recognized disciplic successions, his mantra or initiation is useless. In the present day there are many apasampradayas, or sampradayas which are not bona fide, which have no link to authorities like Lord Brahma, Lord Siva, the Kumaras or Laksmi. People are misguided by such sampradayas. The sastras say that being initiated in such a sampradaya is a useless waste of time, for it will never enable one to understand the real religious principles."

(Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.3.21, purport)

Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura identifies thirteen apasampradayas that split away from the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya after Lord Caitanya's disappearance: aula, baula, kartabhaja, neda, daravesa, sani, sahajiya, sakhibheki, smarta, jata-gosani, ativadi, cudadhari and gauranga-nagari. These apasampradayas (apa means "deviated") are like parasitical growths upon the great tree of the sankirtana movement. Because they exhibit all the defects of material conditioning, they are spiritually useless. The "rasa" relished by such groups is termed prakrta-rasa by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati. Their missionary activities are condemned as cheating.

"A conditioned soul in the material world has the disqualification of cheating. He has four disqualifications: he is sure to commit mistakes, he is sure to be illusioned, he is prone to cheat others and his senses are imperfect. But if anyone carries out the order of the spiritual master by disciplic succession or the parampara system, he overcomes the four defects. Therefore knowledge received from the bona fide spiritual master is not cheating. Any other knowledge which is manufactured by the conditioned soul is cheating only. Brahma knew well that Kardama Muni exactly carried out the instructions received from him and that he actually honored his spiritual master. To honor the spiritual master means to carry out his instructions word for word."

(Bhag. 3.24.12, Purport)

The ultimate test of whether one is or is not a member of Lord Caitanya's sampradaya is the quality of his chanting of the holy name of Krsna, which is the essential acara in the the age of Kali: " should always remember that either grhastha or brahmacari or sannyasi, nobody can strictly follow all the rules and regulations ... In the Kali-yuga it is not possible... Therefore Caitanya Mahaprabhu has recommended that hari-nama, chanting Hare Krsna mantra, should be very rigidly performed, which is common for everyone." (SP conversation, March 10, 1976)

If a person advertises himself as a Gaudiya Vaisnava by chanting the Hare Krsna mahamantra and yet deliberately blasphemes great devotees, denies that Lord Visnu is the Absolute Truth, considers the spiritual master to be an ordinary man, blasphemes Vedic literatures and other authorized scriptures, considers the glories of the holy name to be exaggeration, concocts perverted theories about the holy name, thinks the holy name to be equivalent to mundane religious rituals, preaches the glories of the holy name to the faithless or maintains material attachments while chanting the holy name, he cannot represent the sampradaya even if he is initiated into it.

"Whether a Vaisnava is properly initiated or not is not a subject for consideration. One may be initiated and yet contaminated by the Mayavada philosophy, but a person who chants the holy name of the Lord offenselessly will not be so contaminated. A properly initiated Vaisnava may be imperfect, but one who chants the holy name of the Lord is all-perfect. Although he may apparently be a neophyte, he still has to be considered a pure unalloyed Vaisnava."

(C.c. Madhya 15.111, Purport)

"If one chants the Hare Krsna mantra while committing offenses, these unwanted creepers will grow. One should not take advantage of chanting the Hare Krsna mantra for some material profit. As mentioned in verse 159:

'nisiddhacara', 'kutinati', 'jiva-himsana'
'labha', 'puja', 'pratisthadi yata upasakha-gana

The unwanted creepers have been described by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura. He states that if one hears and chants without trying to give up offenses, one becomes materially attached to sense gratification. One may also desire freedom from material bondage like the Mayavadis, or one may become attached to the yoga-siddhis and desire wonderful yogic powers. If one is attached to wonderful material activities, one is called siddhi-lobhi, greedy for material perfection. One may also be victimized by diplomatic or crooked behavior, or one may associate with women for illicit sex. Others may make a show of devotional service like the prakrta-sahajiyas, or one may try to support his philosophy by joining some caste or identifying himself with the support of family tradition, one may become a pseudo guru or so-called spiritual master. One may become attached to the four sinful activities - illicit sex, intoxication, gambling and meat eating - or one may consider a Vaisnava to belong to a mundane caste or creed. One may think, 'This is a Hindu Vaisnava, and this is a European Vaisnava. A European Vaisnava is not allowed to enter the temples.' In other words, one may consider Vaisnavas in terms of birth, thinking one a brahmana Vaisnava, a sudra Vaisnava, a mleccha Vaisnava and so on. One may also try to carry out a professional business while chanting the Hare Krsna mantra or reading Srimad-Bhagavatam, or one may try to increase his monetary strength by illegal means. One may also try to be a cheap Vaisnava by chanting in a secluded place for material adoration, or one may desire mundane reputation by making comprises with non-devotees, compromising one's philosophy or spiritual life, or one may become a supporter of a hereditary caste system. All these are pitfalls of personal sense gratification. Just to cheat some innocent people, one makes a show of advanced spiritual life and becomes known as a sadhu, mahatma or religious person. All this means that the so-called devotee has become victimized by all these unwanted creepers and that the real creeper of bhakti-lata-bija has been stunted."

(C.c. Madhya 19.160, Purport)

The link between namaparadha and full-blown deviation from the sampradaya is indicated by Srila Jiva Gosvami, who warns in Bhakti-sandharba that there are offenders to the holy name who are acikitsya or incorrigible (jnana-lava- durvidagdhastra-acikitsya-atva-dupeksa). Devotees, always compassionate, try to help fallen souls with good instruction. But if someone becomes insolent and arrogant due to acquiring a little knowledge from their association, he is disqualifed from the sampradaya because of three kinds of namaparadha: sadhu-nindha (blasphemy of the devotees of the Lord), guru-avajna (disregard of the spiritual master) and sruti-sastra-nindha (blasphemy of the revealed scriptures).

Yet the incorrigible offender never concedes the fact of his offenses. He cannot understand that the mercy of the spiritual master and the association of pure devotees are indispensible to the chanting of the holy name. Because he highly values worldly knowledge and accomplishments, he looks down upon the simple devotees who have surrendered themselves to devotional service. This is sadhu-ninda. He cannot accept that the spiritual master is a transcendental teacher, not a worldly one; thus he tries to measure the person and instructions of the guru by his own mental standards. This is guru-avajna. He studies the revealed scriptures as he would ordinary literature, gleaning from it whatever seems to support his preconceived notions, heedless of the rest. This is sruti-sastra-nindha.

If, on the strength of a false show of advancement in Krsna consciousness, he pretends to have fully realized the glories of the holy name, such aparadhi is fit to be shunned by the bona fide community of devotees.

Nontheless, it is seen that some acikitsya-namaparadhis become very influential in the Kali-yuga. Somehow or other they make use of the bona fide spiritual master for their own ends. Advertising themselves as his dearmost disciples, they seem to serve, glorify and worship the spiritual master with considerable sincerity. But all pains taken by them are for the sake of self-promulgation alone. Their progress is in the accumulation of material wealth and fame, not in devotional service to Krsna.

The yacikitsa-namaparadhi, propelled to prominence by cunning, diplomacy and material qualifications like noble birth, opulence, erudition and beauty, may attract followers from the ranks of two lesser grades of namaparadhis who have not firmly taken shelter of the sampradaya due to misfortune. These two kinds of offenders are the ignorant and the weak.

The ignorant offenders are compared to damp wood: lacking bhakti-sukrti and the association and mercy of the saintly, they are sunk in material conceptions; even if they are exposed to the purifying fire of Krsna consciousness, it does not ignite their good fortune immediately. Thus they are liable to be misled. But if they take refuge in the holy name, Krsna's mercy will some day be available to them, even if after a long time.

The weak are hesitant to take advantage of genuine sadhu-sanga due to a paucity of faith. Innocent and without duplicity, the more they can simply surrender to the chanting of the holy name in good association, the more they are blessed by Krsna's mercy. But until their lingering sins are destroyed by the effect of sadhu-sanga, they cannot muster the strength to transcend namaparadha.

The acikitsya-namaparadhi expertly spins a net of illusion sticky-sweet with a perverted enjoying mood (prakrta-rasa) by which he entraps his unfortunate followers. Awakening and nourishing seeds of worldly desire (anarthas) within their hearts, he misleads them into thinking that these growing anarthas are the bhakti-lata-bija.

"Bhakti-lata-bija means 'the seed of devotional service.' Everything has an original cause or seed. For any idea, program, plan or device, there is first of all the contemplation of the plan, and that is called bija, or the seed. The methods, rules and regulations by which one is perfectly trained in devotional service constitute the bhakti-lata-bija, or seed of devotional service. This bhakti-lata-bija is received from the spiritual master by the grace of Krsna. Other seeds are called anyabhilasa-bija, karma-bija, jnana-bija or political and social or philanthropic bija. However, bhakti-lata-bija is different from these other bijas. Bhakti-lata-bija can be received only through the mercy of the spiritual master. Therefore one has to satisfy the spiritual master to get bhakti-lata-bija (yasya prasadad bhagavat-prasadah). Bhakti-lata-bija is the origin of devotional service. Unless one satisfies the spiritual master, he gets the bija, or root cause, of karma, jnana and yoga without the benefit of devotional service. However, one who is faithful to his spiritual master gets the bhakti-lata-bija. This bhakti-lata-bija is received when one is initiated by the bona fide spiritual master. After receiving the spiritual master's mercy, one must repeat his instructions, and this is called sravana-kirtana - hearing and chanting. One who has not properly heard from the spiritual master or who does not follow the regulative principles is not fit for chanting (kirtana). This is explained in Bhagavad-gita (2.41): vyavasayatmika buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana. One who has not listened carefully to the instructions of the spiritual master is unfit to chant or preach the cult of devotional service. One has to water the bhakti-lata-bija after receiving instructions from the spiritual master."

(C.c. Madhya 19.152, purport)

In the apasampradayas, chanting and preaching are never undertaken with regard for Vaisnava traditions of regulative principles and spiritual instruction. The "ecstasy" of prakrta-rasa generated by such unauthorized chanting and preaching is but poison in devotional guise.

"Instead of awakening real love for Krsna, such hearers of the Bhagavatam become more and more attached to household affairs and sex life (yan maithunadi-grhamedhi-sukham hi tuccham). One should hear Srimad-Bhagavatam from a person who has no connection with material activities, or, in other words, from a paramahamsa Vaisnava, one who has achieved the highest stage of sannyasa. This, of course, is not possible unless one takes shelter of the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The Srimad-Bhagavatam is understandable only for one who can follow in the footsteps of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu."

(C.c. Antya 5.131, purport)

In their "ecstacy", the apasampradayas enjoy the holy dhama (or a place they claim is a dhama) as a facility for hucksterism, self-promotion and money-making. They enjoy disciples by diverting them from the Lord's service and engaging them in the service of the senses of cheating gurus. They enjoy great Vaisnavas through lip-service and cheap imitation; eager to bewilder the innocent and advance their own schemes, they strive for some kind of recognition from a great Vaisnava so that they can freely exploit this "endorsement." And they enjoy propagating esoteric doctrines of their own invention that they claim are the real teachings of guru, sastra and sadhu.

All this results in three kinds of inauspicious qualities that are ever prominent in the apasampradayas. These are mentioned in Vaisnava Ke by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati: anitya-vaibhava (hankering for material success), kaminira-kama (illicit sexual affairs that are usually passed off as "transcendental"), and mayavada (philosophical speculation that undercuts the personal nature of God as taught by the Vaisnava sampradayas).

In the chapters that follow, the backgrounds of the thirteen apasampradayas will be investigated and their deviations analyzed. I have undertaken this work out of a firm belief that these thirteen cases are archetypical of all sorts of misrepresentations of the sankirtana movement of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu that have been seen down to this very day.

As he declared in a lecture on July 4, 1970, Srila Prabhupada considered his only success to be the extension of Lord Caitanya's sampradaya into the Western World. It will be our success as his followers to protect the growth of ISKCON so that it may extend to every town and village of this planet as Lord Caitanya predicted. Let us heed the warning from another prediction made by Lord Caitanya regarding the rise of the apasampradayas: visva andhakara koribe - "In My name they will make the whole world dark."

In preparing this volume, I have drawn from a number of sources, Vaisnava and academic. The most important of these are the books, letters and lectures of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Svami Prabhupada. From Sri Bhakti-vilasa Bharati Maharaja, a godbrother of Srila Prabhupada, I used resumes and refutations of apasampradaya philosophy given in Apasampradaya Svarupa, kindly translated from the Bengali by Bhakta Krishanu Lahiri, a student of languages at Calcutta University and member of Bhaktivedanta Youth Services. I also took help of the wealth of data on the Gaudiya sampradaya's long-standing differences with the jata-gosani and smarta castes in The History and Literature of the Gaudiya Vaisnavas, an unpublished manuscript by another godbrother of Srila Prabhupada named Sambidananda dasa (who in the 1930's accompanied two Gaudiya Matha sannyasis on a preaching tour of Europe). The following scholarly books were consulted: Vaisnavism in Bengal by Dr. Ramkantha Cakravarti (Sanskrit Pushtak Bandhar, Calcutta 1985), Obscure Religious Cults by Dr. Sashi Bhushan Das Gupta (1976 reprint by Firma KLM Ltd.), The Bauls of Bengal by Rebati Mohan Sarkar (Gian Publishing House, New Delhi 1990) and Braj - Center of Krishna Pilgrimage by Alan W. Entwistle (Egbert Forsten, Holland 1987).

Source: Apasampradayas: Deviant Vaishnava Sects, published by Bhaktivedanta Academy (Mayapur)

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