Celtic links (England, Ireland, Scotland)
Britain Recognizes Need of Romany-Speaking Gypsies
The Globe and Mail
SOFIA (AP) -- A recently unearthed sacrificial altar where ancient villagers left offerings to their gods may be up to 8,000-years-old, making it the oldest of its kind found in Europe, a Bulgarian archeologist said Thursday.
The altar was discovered earlier this week in a mound that contained many traces of Stone and Copper Age settlements near the village of Kapitan Dimitrievo, some 100 kilometres southeast of the capital, Sofia.
"The archeological layer where the sacrificial altar was found dates back to 6,000 BC," said Vasil Nikolov, the head of the excavation team.
"In the fifth and sixth millennium BC, these lands used to be Europe's civilization core," Mr. Nikolov said. "The people who lived there were among the first farmers in Europe."
The altar is 1.85 metres deep. Three steps lead to the bottom of the cylindrical hole where religious rituals were performed.
"The cylindrical bottom of the altar is meant to symbolize the womb of the Mother Goddess of Earth," he said. "The religious rituals ñ mainly food sacrifices ñ were supposed to secure a rich harvest."
In the mound's earliest Neolithic layer, the archeologists discovered an ancient wood and clay lodging with three rooms, a grain depot and a domed fireplace. The sacrificial altar, where people left offerings of grain and cereals, was found near the fireplace.
"An altar well of such dimensions dating back to the sixth millennium BC is a first-time discovery in Europe," Mr. Nikolov said.
The mound where the altar was found is 13 metres high, with a diameter of 140 metres.
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Petar Dobrev: ORIGINS AND FIRST LAND OF THE BULGARIANS
For a very long time the oldest cradle of the Bulgarian tribe remained hidden for the scrutiny of science. Some looked for it in Altai and Mongolia, others, like D. Susulov, N. Stanishev, in Tarim, to the East of Pamir. There were others who looked to the North, in the Caucasus,and still others considered Bulgarians to be Europeans, akin to the Thracians. It is only in the last years that we found some guiding lights in thiscomplex mazeway of hypotheses. The most important one relates to the newly found inscriptions, written in the language of the Bulgarian rulers KUBRAT and ASPARUH. In their form those inscriptions remind very much of the East Pamir languages(Vakhan (Vahi), Ishkashim , Mundjan , Sarikoli and Darvaz), which is an indicating that the landof origin of the ancient Bulgarians was not Europe, neither was it Mongolia or Turkestan It was somewhere in PAMIR and HINDUKUSH . We get the same evidence from the peculiar words KAVHAN, TARKAN, ZHOPAN, ZERA, KALU, SETIT, and others, which can be found in the old Bulgarian inscription in Greek. Such concepts are unknown to the Mongols and the Turkic people, but they are well known to the people of Pamir. Anthropological research also shows that ancient Bulgarians have lived some time in the past in Pamir. In their physical appearance the old Bulgarians resembled very much the Pamir-Fergan racial type, that originated in the southern and the most civilized part of Central Asia. According to the oldest Armenian geography "the Bulgarians were among the 15 peoples "who inhabited once the land between Turkestan and the Areans in the foots of the mountain Imai" (today Pamir and Hindukush).Since the name Turkestan was used before 6-7th century for the land beyond Sur-Darya, and the word "areans" was the name for the people in the Persian region of Area, this description indicates that the Bulgarians have lived at some period to the East of Persia and to the West of Sur-Darya - the mountains of Pamir and Hindukush. On the geographic map, appended to "Ashharatsuits", recently published by academician S. Eremyan, the name of the Bulgarians is located exactly at the point where the western ranges of the Imeon mountains meet it snorthern ranges - the Zervansh crest of Pamir. In the well known Latin anonymous Chronograph of 345, the name of the ancient Bulgarians is used as a replacement of the old Baktrinians, who inhabited the lands near the Pamir and the Hindukush. This is to show that for the compilers of this early historical source the Bulgarians were a part of the peoples inhabiting the region between Persia and Turkestan. Two more facts deserve attention. In the northern parts of the Pamir there was a state, called by the Sogdinians BLGAR, by the Arabs -BURGAR, and by the Tadziks - FALGAR. And to the West of the Pamir Indian sources (MAHABHARATA and the PURANAS) mention people of the name of BOLHI , BAHLIKA or BOLHIKI, ruled by the ancient king KARDAMA, and the Arab sources mention the ancient land of BALHARA. Some more details, suggested about a century ago by Prof. Vassil Zlatarski, are also of importance: round the mountain of Imeon there were, according to the Byzantine historian Agatius, the lands of the Kutrigurs, Utigurs and Vurugunds (presumably the Unogondurs). In the same region was situated the Onogur town of Bakat, according to Simokata. And lastly, the same region is the land of origin of the tribe of Kozagirs in whom Zlatarski, reasonably, sees the predecessors of the well known Bulgarian division "Kuchi-bulgar" like today's Afghan Kuchis. All scholarly evidence of the lands of origin of ancient Bulgarians focuses on one and the same geographic region - the Pamir and the Hindukush. Attempts to look for the oldest lands of the Bulgarians fareast - in Turkestan and Mongolia, where lived the tribes PU-KU and BAIEGU, mentioned in Chinese sources, or near the Mongolian river Tolaand the lake Balhash, have failed. For behind the Chinese words Pu-Kuand Baiegu are hidden the Kirgiz tribes BUGU and MAIIRKU, who have nothing in common with the ancient Bulgarians.
The name Tola in the eastern Altai languages means deep-water river , and Balhash in Tuvinian means literally "swamp, moor".
Fortunately there is a chronicle that has survived and it describes directly the land of origin of the Bulgarians in Europe. It was left by Mikhail the Syrian - Patriarch of Antiohia, called for his scholarly distinctionand erudition Mar Mikhail the Great. Here is what he says: "At those times there came from internal Skitia (Central Asia) three brothers,wholead with them 30 000 Skitians, and took the road of 60 days to the gorges of Imeon (Pamir and Hindukush) to the river Tanais (the Don),which flows into the lake of Meotida. Those people were named by the Romans Bulgars." This short description, discovered by Vassil Zlatarski, shows that the lands of ancient Bulgarians were in the valleys of the Pamir and the Hindukush. Starting from there, in about 60 days they reached the river Don and the Azov sea. If we start in the opposite direction from the Don to the east, we can easily confirm the correctness of this short story. For it is true that in about 60 days one can reach on foot from the Don to the northern foots of the Pamir, where the old lands of BALGAR were, called even today by the local Tadziks PALGAR. After almost two centuries of research and the endeavors of many scholars the sacred fatherland of the Bulgarians was discovered. This land, so dear to us, was situated in the foots of the Pamir and the Hindukush, where since ancient times existed the states of BALGAR and BALHARA.
Petar Dobrev: THE SECRETS OF OLD BULGARIAN RELIGION
Prior to Christianity Bulgarians had a different religion. We can learn about it from a direct historical source the dispute of Khan Omurtag with Cinamon of Byzantium. If you praise the Sun and the Moon [as gods] says Cinamon to Omurtag and make me wonder at their magnificence, and I do wonder, I still find them creations and servants not only to God but also to us, the human beings.To which Khan Omurtag answers: Do not abase our gods! Their power is great and you can judge about it from the fact that we, who pay homage to them, conquered the whole land of the Romans. (Cf. 1931, p. 256-259)
The Bulgars had the right to pay homage to their gods and to be proud
of them. In an old manuscript we find the names of Bulgarian gods side
by side with those of well-known ancient peoples. The author of this manuscript,
unknown in Bulgaria until recently and kept in the greatest French and
English libraries, is the famous Arab scholar El-Balhi (cir. 850). Here
is what he says: It is interesting that all peoples have their own names
for the Creator. The Arabs call Him Allah in the singular, and the other
deities they call Illah; the Persians call Him Hormuz, Ized, Yazdan. In
Zaratustra he is called Hormuz, but I have also heard the names Khod-Eht
and Khod-Boreht, which means He-Himself. The Indians and the people of
Sind (Pakistan) call him Shita Vabit and Mahadeva. The Turkic people say
Bir Tengri*, which means, There is one God. The Christians of Syria say
Laha Raba Kuadussa. The Jews say in their Jewish language: Elohim Adonai
or Ehie Asher Ehie. Elohim means god in their language. I heard the Bulgarians
call the Creator with the name Edfu and when I asked them how they call
their idol, they answered Fa. I also asked the Copts what is their name
for the Creator. They answered Ahad Shanak. (M. Tahir, Le livre de la creation
de el-Balhi. Paris, 1899, v. IV, p. 56).
[*There is a peak in the Tien Shan mountains, named Khan-Tengri - 22,949 feet/6,995 m, - and it was long regarded as the highest peak of the Tien Shan system.]
Religious data offered by El-Balhi astound the reader with their precision and broadness. He gives the accurate names of God used by well-known peoples and also by some specific ethnic communities like the Sinds from Eastern Pakistan and the Copts, almost forgotten successors of the ancient Egyptians. It is then hardly possible that the scholar is wrong about the Bulgarians. What is more, his text contains the expression I heard the Bulgarians.., which indicates that he had the data directly from the Bulgarians. Judging by this text, our ancestors believed not only in the celestial bodies but also in a supreme God-Creator. As different from the Persians however, who called him Hormuz, and the Turkic people who called him Tengri, the Bulgarians used the strange and unknown word EDFU. The two new sources discussed here broaden and enrich our notions of the religion of the old Bulgarians. So far scholars had only one real fact to rely on the name TANGRA, discovered in the form of TANGRAN by Prof. V. Beshevliev in an early Bulgarian inscription of the 9th c. It turns out that, like the Persians, who called God with three parallel names, the Bulgarians called him Tangra, but also Edfu a fact completely unknown to this day.
An interesting question arises: what are the regions in which the Creator was called with the two names of Tangra and Edfu? Something similar, as I was able to discover, existed in one single region of the East Pamir and Hindukush [see the maps above], where, according to historical sources, the Bulgarians lived before they migrated to Europe. The notion of TANDRA - lightening- is very popular there and is connected with the supreme God of thunder. Parallel to it a second name of God is also commonly used Hudo-ETH. Not very far from Pamir, in the Fergan valley, we still have the word FA idol, fetish, included in Assadis dictionary of modern Persian and referred to in the commentaries to El-Balhis works. The use of these notions in the region of Pamir is not accidental there was in these parts, following the Arab scholar Massudi, an enormous temple of the Sun, classified among the seven largest temples in the world. And the Sun itself, in its zenith, was called with names like Adhu and Edh, cognate with the Sanskrit notion Aditya (Sun), and especially the epithet EDDH burning, blazing.
Such data indicate that the roots of the religion of the Bulgarians
can be found in the region of Pamir and Hidukush where they lived before
moving to Europe. Two relics of this forgotten religion were discovered
- a bronze rosette from Pliska, dedicated to the seven celestial bodies and marked by the typical Bulgar symbol IYI, and two stone slabs with the same symbol and - drawings of the Sun and the Moon, found not far from the Bulgarska Morava river.
To the same religion we can attribute also three newly deciphered runic inscriptions from Murfatlar, two of which are dedicated to the Sun and Jupiter. The third one consists of the single word EFE, which could be a term of address to the god Edfu of the type EDFE or some parallel name of the same god. (Cf. P. Dobrev. Universum Protobulgaricum. New York, 1996).
Very interesting in this connection is the history of the religious cult of the seven celestial bodies. It appears for the first time in the Shumer-Accadian civilization where the names of the Sun, the Moon and the five planets, known to the Ancient world, are always accompanied by the word DINGIR god, akin to the Elam word TANRU. The Sun is called Dingir-UTU (Sun God) by the Shumerians, the Moon is called Dingir-sin (Moon God), etc. From this very part of the world the cult of the celestial bodies spread radially to the East and the West among the ancient peoples Assyrians, Indo-Iranians, Hittites, Celts, Romans, etc. Widely spread are also words like DINGIR and TANRU or the like: the Assyrian word TANRA heavenly body, the Indian TARA star, the Hittite TARA heavenly light, the Celtic TARAN god of thunder, the Anglo-Saxon THUNDER, the Pamir word TANDRA lightening, and the remotest cognate the Turkic word TENGRI (god of the bright blue sky).
Old Bulgarian religion, with its devotion to the seven celestial bodies and the Supreme God, called Tangra and Edfu, is part of this religious system. What is more, it does not represent the most simplified Turkic variant but the initial well developed system. This is not primitive Asiatic shamanism, as interpreted by some authors, but one of the oldest religions of humanity. It is high time to acknowledge this fact.
For more information:
THE FAMILY TREE OF KING BAHLIKA IN MAHABHARATA [Re: stefan]
#47749 - 08/26/04 05:03 AM Edit Reply Quote
Post Extras: stefan stranger
About UttaraKurus, Kuru/Puru and The Madras/Uttara-Madras [Re: stefan]
#48428 - 09/23/04 01:59 AM Edit Reply Quote
I found some information about UttaraKurus, Kuru/Puru and The Madras/Uttara-Madras in this Web-site below:
The Ramayan localizes the UttaraKurus in Bahlika country [Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India, p 110]. According to it, Ila, son of Parjapati Karddama, king of Bahli (Bahlika) country, gave up Bahli in favor of his son Sasabindu and and founded a city of Pratisthana in Madhydesa The princes of Aila dynasty [which is also the dyanasty of Kurus], have been called Karddameya [Ramayana (Lahore Edition) Uttarakanda, 89-3-2, pp 299-300, 309, cf Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India, p 110]. The Karddameya obtained their names from river Kardama in Persia and therefore their homeland is identified with Bahlika or Bacteria and not with any other territory in India proper [Studies in Indian Antiquaries, p 234]. It is thus clear that Kurus were originally a people of Bahlika or Bacteria. Also it be noted that Satapatha Brahamana knows of a king named Bahlika Pratipeya who is called KAURAVYA. [Satapatha Brahamana XII 9.3.3] and is identical with Bahlika Pratipeya of Mahabharata [MBH V, 23.9; 149.27; Journal o Royal Asiatic Society, 1910, p 52]. Vatsyana in his Kamasutra records a peculiar custom prevalent among the Bahlikas i.e several young men marry a single woman in Bahlika country and in Strirajya....[Kamasutra of Vatsyayana, p 385]. and we know that Pandavas (=Kurus) were married to one women, Draupadi. Hence it appears very likely that the Kurus were originally a people of of Balkh and later was identical with Uttarakurus. The Bahlika or Bacteria is evidently beyond HinduKush (Himalaya range).
That the Madras were originally a people of Balkh is suggested by the
the Vamsa Brahamana (1/18) of the samveda, which refers to a Madragara
Shaungayani as a teacher of Aupmanyava Kamboja. [Vedic Index II, p 61].
"Dr Zimmer has rightly thought that these two names point to a CONNECTION
OF THE KAMBOJAS and the MADRAS [Vedic Index, II, p 123, Dr Keith &
Mcdonnell; Some Kshatrya Tribes, 1924, p 231, Dr Law]. "In aitreya Brahmana,
the Uttarakurus and Uttaramadras are described as living beyond Himalaya
(VIII.14); and the Vamsa Brahamana Kamboja Aupamanya is spoken of as a
pupil of of Madaragara; from which the Vedic Index postulates a possible
connection of the Uttaramadras with the Kambojas, who probably had Iranain
as well as Indian affinities....[Vedic Index, I.84, 138 cf: Also Jean Przyluski,
An Ancient People of Panjab; the Udumbras, Journal Asiatique, 1926, p 11]"
[India as Known to Panini, p 50, Dr V. S. Aggarwala; Ancient Kamboja, People
& the Country, 1981, p 231, Dr Kamboj]. Since we know that the Kambojas
were originally a people of Badakshan and Pamir, [see Chapter V, The Kambojas
by Dr M. R. Singh, Jaipur University, Geographical data in Early Puranas,
1978, p pp 163-168]. The Madras might have dwelt in Bahlikas. King Salya
of Mahabharata who was Madra king and was maternal Uncle of Nakula &
Sehdeva has been called Bahlika Pungava...foremost among the Bahlikas...[MBH
I.67.6;112.3]. and Madri, a princess of the Madra Royal Family, has been
called Bahliki [MBH I.124.21]. According to Samangalavilasini, the wife
of a chakaravarti king comes either from Uttarakurus or from the race ogf
the king of Madda [Madra]. According to Puranas, in the the Parava line,
there happened to be a king of Hastina, who founded the city of Hastinapura.
Hastina had two sons. Ajamidha and DVimidha. Ajamidha is said to have continued
the main Paurava line at Hastina pura. Dvimidha founded a seperate dynasty.
Ajamidha had three sons...Rksa, Nila & Brhadisu. Rksa continued the
main paurva line at Hastinapura and the two other sons founded the dynasties
of North and South Panchala respectively. [ Ancient Indian Historical Traditions,
pp 111-113, Dr Pargiter]. According to the Ramayana, the river Bhagirathi
seperated the Panchalas from the Kurus. [Ramayana II.54.13].
Date: Thu, 17 Oct 2002 23:21:59 -0000
From: "vrinparker" <email@example.com>
Source Hinduism Today
1) Celtic cosmology cognizes four interrelating worlds of existence: netherworld, earth realm; heavenly realm of dead and demi-gods; white realm of supreme Deities and energy source of stars.
Vedic cosmology perceives three interrelating worlds-physical; astral world of dead and demi-gods; causal universe of Deities, Supreme Being and primal energy; plus a fourth netherworld.
2) These worlds further divided into lands and cities occupied by spirits and disincarnate people of similar character. Time is slower in these realms.
The three worlds divide into loka habitats of existence, occupied by spirits and like-minded disincarnate people. Time is dilated in the lokas.
3) Celtic earth realm is called bitus. Celtic Gods are called deuos, meaning "shining one."
Vedic earth world is called bhu. Gods of Vedas are invoked as deva, meaning "shining one."
JTCD's note: In the Purusha sukta prayers the word dhyaus is refered to as "heaven"
naabhyaa aaseed antariksham
shirshno dhyauh(s) samavartata
padbhyagm bhoomir dishah(s) shrotraat(e)
tathaa lokaagm akalpayan(e)
From His navel arose the space between earth and heaven; from His head, the heavens; from His feet, the earth; and from His ears, the directions. In this way the worlds were created.
4) Departed souls dwelled in refined or hellish lands until their next reincarnation as a human or animal.
At death, souls continue existence in subtle or hellish realms until entry into the next human or animal body.
5) Celtic priests taught that human souls were indestructible, but the universe ends and rebuilds through fire and water in a repeating cycle.
The universe existence span-called kalpa-ends in a repeating creation/destruction cycle through fire and water, symbolic of primal light and sound.
6) Celtic deities included Gods who actualized nature forces, promulgated ethics, justice, knowledge, speech, arts, crafts, medicine, harvests, gave war courage and battled forces of darkness, and Goddesses of land, rivers and motherhood. Gods often did multiple functions.
The early Vedic pantheon included deities of fire, solar, atmospheric and nature forces, ritual stimulants, speech, crafts, arts, harvests, medicine, justice, ethical/ecological order, war, battlers of malevolent beings, river Goddesses. Gods often had overlapping functions.
7) Celtic God of thunder was Taranus who carried thunderbolts. God of fire is Aedh (pronounced uh-ee), meaning fire. The sun Deity is Sulios. The Celtic word for invocation is gutuater.
Vedic God of rain and thunder was Indra who carried thunderbolts. Vedic God of fire is Agni, meaning fire. The solar Being is Surya. The Sanskrit term for invocation is hotar.
8) Celtic cosmology conceived of cosmic creation as a primal Person sacrifice. The Celt term for breath is anal. For soul, the Celt word is anam.
Vedic cosmology describes cosmic creation as the sacrifice of Primal Being. The Vedic word for breath is prana. The soul in the Vedas is atman.
9) The central Celtic ritual was the fire sacrifice, conducted in geometric pits with offerings of herbs, mead and flour cakes, conducted by chanting druids, the Celtic priests.
The central Vedic ritual was the fire sacrifice, performed in geometric pits with offerings of ghee, spices, rice-conducted by hymn-and-mantra-chanting brahmins
10) Celtic priests were called druids, meaning "knowers of the tree, or truth." They memorized the entire knowledge of the Celts and passed it on orally, forbidding written transmission. They were divided into several classes: seers, judges, royal advisors, hymn chanters, poet bards, sacrificers. They were also astronomers, healers and magicians.
The Vedic priesthood-the brahmins-memorized the scriptural and societal law knowledge of the Hindus, passing it on orally, forbidding writing. Brahmins formed several divisions associated with the fire ritual duties. Enlightened brahmins became rishi seers. Others advised kings and some specialized in medicine and astronomy/astrology.
11) Druids studied for 20 years in strict discipleship to master their oral, ritual, law, science and psychic arts.
Brahmins studied for 12 years in a gurukulam to master oral, ritual, mathematical, astronomical knowledge.
12) Druids memorized extremely lengthy poetic sagas that communicated spiritual metaphysics and civic laws. The poetic metre was a fixed syllable line, free form, with 3-part cadence at end.
Bards of the Vedic literature memorized lengthy poetic sagas conveying spiritual knowledge and dharmic duty. The poetic metre was a fixed syllable line, free form, with 3-part cadence at end.
13) Druids practiced breathing, posture and meditation techniques that gave degrees of ecstacy, often accompanied by intense heat in the body.
Vedic ascetics practiced breathing, posture and meditation skills in a spiritual unfoldment process called tapas (heat), generating high body heat.
14) Celtic society was divided into three hierarchical stratas of life: priests, warriors and producers (inclusive of merchants). Druids advised warrior-kings known as rix. Upward progression through classes was possible.
Vedic society divided into four hierarchical castes: priests, warriors, merchants, workers. Brahmins counseled warrior-kings (rajas). Upward mobility was sanctioned in Vedas, but later frozen in societal law books.
15) Celts prized the magical power of telling truth, honor/piety among men and eloquence in conversation and oration.
Vedic society prized the supernatural power of truth-saying, piety and honor, and eloquence in gatherings.
16) Celts honored women, guarded their virtue, and allowed by law daughters of sonless fathers to inherit property or to marry kinsmen to bear male heirs to the father. Seeresses were sanctioned, and priestesses for Goddesses favored.
Vedic Hindus prized womanly virtues, and by law sonless fathers could bequeath property to daughters or arrange her marriage to relatives for male heirs. Female seers were countenanced, and female ascetics tended Goddess rites.
17) Celts recognized 8 forms of marriage from arranged to love to abduction. A bride gift was given by the groom.
Vedic Hindus followed 8 forms of marriage from arranged to love to abduction. The groom paid a bride price.
18) Celts defined life stages, columns of age: infancy (0-1), boyhood (2-11), adolescence (12-18), young adult (19-45), old age (46-65), decrepitude (65+) in which enlightening inspiration is sought.
Vedic society taught four ashrama stages of life: studentship (12-24); family life (25-48); elder advisor (49-72); religious solitaire (72+), in which the individual seeks enlightenment.
19) The Celtic ideal measure of life was to live 100 years.
The Vedic ideal of a fulfilled life was to live 100 autumns.
20) Celt family unit was a group of four generations from a great-grandfather.
The ancient Hindu family unit is four generations from a great-grandfather.
21) One Celt calendar was based on 62 lunar months (5 years +) intercalated to a 3-year solar cycle for solstice correction. Druids studied stellar motion, navigation and contemplated such abstracts as the size and nature of the universe.
Vedic astronomy is based on lunar months daily aligned to star positions and related to 3-year and 5-year solar cycles. Vedic astronomy was applied to astrology, and the rishi seers contemplated the universe's nature and genesis.
22) By Celt law a man owed money could fast at the door of the debtor-who must join the fast-forcing the debtor to pay or enter an arbitration.
By Hindu law, a creditor could fast at the door of the past due debtor, who then was obligated to protect the health of the creditor and pay the debt.
The Celtic Vedic Connection
Date: Thu, 17 Oct 2002 23:20:49 -0000
From: Indian Pagan
Subject: The Celtic Vedic Connection
The Celtic Vedic Connection
By Indian Pagan
Of all the great ancient cultures perhaps no two share more parallels than those of the Celtic and Vedic peoples. A deep rooted affinity runs between them, what is present in one is mirrored in the other. Myths, Gods, Goddesses, even fairy tales bear a striking similarity in these archaic reflections of one another.
This is the first of two articles introducing the connection between Celtic and Vedic religion, society and folklore. In this and the following article the many similarities between the two cultures will be explored in a comparative context. For easy reading I have separated this article into several categories. These are the Druids & the Brahmins, Gods & Goddesses, Danu in Celtic & Vedic Myth, Places of Worship and Celtic & Vedic Fairies. Each of these topics only skims the suface and future further research will undoubtly reveal much more into the parallels of these two great cultures. It should be stated that for the sake of not complicating matters most of the Celtic references in this article are Irish. Although Celtic religion and culture varied from country to country this has not been discussed as this article is only an introduction to this field. Though it is worth noting that the various Celtic peoples were not a uniform culture.
The Druids & the Brahmins
The easiest of parallels to be drawn between the Celtic and Vedic peoples must be that of the Druids and the Brahmins. The Druids and the Brahmins were both the priests and philosophers of their respective cultures. Both orders of priests were the wise ones of their lands, the seers and teachers, to whom warriors and kings turned for counsel and advice. They were free to wander the lands, as many of India's holy men still do, and, according to Caesar's writings, the Druids were "held with great honour by the people".
However it appears to be a gross simplification to consider the Druids one homogeneous group whose function was only that of priest or philosopher. There may have been three divisions within the Celtic religious order, that of Bard, Vate and Druid. Historical evidence of this is to be found in the writings of Strabo (40 BCE - 25 CE), 'Among all the tribes, generally speaking, there are three classes of men held in special honour: the Bards the Vates and the Druids.' However I have chosen to leave discussion of the three grades for another time as it would detract from the focus of this particular article.
The name 'Druid' is considered by some to have originated the mediterranean and the East. The first syllable of the word 'Druid', according to Pliny the Elder (1 CE), is related to the Greek word for the Oak tree, 'drus'. The root of which is 'dr' and it is to be found in several Aryan languages. The second syllable is thought to have originated from the sanskrit word 'vid', meaning 'knowledge', which is also the root of the term 'Vedas'. If this is accurate then the Druids would have been those who possess the 'knowledge of the Oak tree'. The Oak tree in Celtic myth and legend was closely associated with knowledge and wisdom. In old Irish the term 'Druid' is the plural, referring to more than one of the Celtic holy men, whereas the singular is drui. In order to avoid confusion the term 'Druid' in this article will be used to refer to a single Druid and the term 'Druids' to refer to more than one.
Like the Brahmins, the Druids wore simple clothing. The clothing of the Druids, from what evidence remains, seems to have been a white or undyed hooded robe. It is from the writings of Pliny the Elder that the image of a Druid in his flowing white robes, cutting mistletoe with a golden sickle has now became a popular image of the ancient Druids.
Druid collecting mistletoe
The clothing of the Druids is rather contrasting when compared to some of the clothing, and jewellery, found in the rest of Celtic culture. Often the textiles worn by the Celts were rich in colour and design, in particular their cloaks. The Celts were also avid wearers of golden jewellery and of their jewellery the torque is probably the most recognisable item worn. Virgil gives a classical description of the Celts in writing, "Golden is their hair, and golden their garb. They are resplendent in their striped cloaks, and their milk-white necks are circled with gold." The torque was a neck ornament of nobility, regularly made of gold, worn by males and if we look at the Gundestrup Cauldron it can also be found around the neck of Cernunnos. The Romans during their invasion of Britain were intrigued by these bold and heavy neck displays. So much so that they awarded their soldiers with them in recognition of acts of bravery.
A Celtic Torque
The Druids and their daily activities of bathing in rivers is a mirror image of the Vedic Brahmins, who bathe during the first hours of sun rise in rivers such as the Ganges. Tacitus, a Greek historian, commented on the striking similarity of the bathing Druids to the Brahmins, suggesting they were "so emblematic of the brahmins." Morning bathing in rivers remains a daily activity for the Brahmins, and many Hindus, to this very day.
The Druids and the Brahmins occupied a similar place in the social hierarchy of their cultures. Both formed not only the spiritual elite but also the intellectual caste of society. It was also common for Indian kings (known as 'Rajas') to consult the Brahmins on matters of state, as it was also for Celtic kings (Old Irish - 'Righ'; note the similarity to the Sanskrit) to hold counsel with the Druids. Celtic and Vedic society were hierarchically structured, sharing similar segregated classes of peoples. Celtic culture was a tripartite system based on the three-fold divisions of: the spiritual leaders, the Druids; the ruling/warrior class; and a class of producers which included merchants, hunters and in later periods agricultural producers.
A similar social structure was employed in Vedic society for thousands of years (India has approximately 10, 000 years of continual history during which Vedic direction seems to have been present for the majority of that time). Commonly referred to as the 'caste system', which in recent years western culture has greatly condemned, Vedic culture is distinguished by four social stratas. The Brahmins were the highly respected priestly class; there also existed a regal/military class (the Kshatriyas); merchants and agriculturalist (the Vaishyas); lastly were the labourers or the untouchables (the Shudras). This class (varna) system finds it's sanction in the Rig Veda, book 10, hymn 90:12, and it is also addressed, although less directly, in book 1, 113:6. However there are references to the various castes in other Vedic texts, namely the Yajur Veda and the Artharva Veda. Later in Vedic history, into the period of classical Hinduism, social mobility ceased to exist. It should be noted that in 1947 (CE), Article 17 of the Indian Constitution abolished the practising of untouchability in any form. However many social commentators argue that this has did little to remove the practice.
As with Celtic society Greek historians also commented and noted down their impressions of Vedic society, recorded during the unsuccessful conquest of India by Alexander the Great. Among their observations was the lack of slavery, the equal right to freedom of all people, and that warfare was restricted to the Kshastriyas (warrior class). The overall impression was one of a society with a strong sense of morality and high ethical values.
On matters of state and law parallels can be found between the Vedic system of the Laws of Manu and the old Irish system, the Laws of the Fenechus. Before the Laws of Manu, in early Vedic culture, the Brahmins were not purely a hereditary caste. A child from any caste could be initiated into the Brahmin priesthood to begin their 12 years of training. However this upward social mobility later ceased. Upward social mobility was also possible in Celtic culture as a child picked to be a Druid could be from any of the social division groupings. Caesar tells us that the Druids went through 20 years of training. Though this may have more accurately been 19 years as the Druids may have used a 19 year lunar cycle calendar (the Meton cycle).
The Druids and the Brahmins, probably because of their extensive training, were regarded as being the only ones who could perform certain rites and sacrifices. Diodorus Siculus wrote that the Celts "do not sacrifice or ask favours from the Gods without a Druid present, as they believe sacrifice should be made only by those supposedly skilled in divine communication." The Celts not only held the ritual authority of the Druids in high esteem, the teachings of the Druids were also greatly respected. Men and women, young and old, would ask the Druids to share their wisdom with them on a variety of matters. One teaching that we are certain was prominent in Celtic culture was that of the doctrine of transmigration of souls, the process of death and rebirth. This is known from recorded myths and from the Roman and Greek writings. In the Rig Veda there is no clear reference to reincarnation, yet some verses do suggest it. For example, "For thou at first producest for the holy Gods the noblest of all portions, immortality: Thereafter as a gift to men, O Savitar, thou openest existence, life succeeding life" (book 4, 54:2). It is not until the later Vedic texts, for example the Upanishads, that reincarnation is clearly discussed. Interestingly the term for soul (I use the term soul for reasons of simplicity) in Vedic literature is 'atman', whereas the Celtic term for soul is 'anam'. This similarity in language illustrates a unifiying connecton between the two cultures. However I shall discuss language more fully in the second article.
A difference between the two religious orders that is worth noting is that of the inclusion of women in Druidism and the exclusion of women in Brahminism. For history suggests that while Vedic religion and culture were patriarchal, yet Celtic culture and religion, though not matriarchal, was in no way as male dominated as it's Vedic equivalent. The role of women in Celtic culture and religion seems to have been less constrained and defined, in comparison to Vedic society. Not only were there women Druids but from written accounts it is known that women also fought in battle. Diodorus described Celtic women as being "nearly as big and strong as their husbands and as fierce."
Due to the cessation of the Druids a vast wealth of knowledge and wisdom has been lost. As part of an oral tradition, like the Brahmins of old, nothing was ever wrote down, all myths, laws and teachings were held to memory. Consequently with the death of the Druid order was also the death of their knowledge and wisdom. Now lost to history, perhaps the best approach in attempting to regain their lost secrets is to turn eastwards, to the Brahmins and the seers, to the Druids of India.
Gods & Goddesses
Both Celtic and Vedic cultures were closely entwined around a multifarious pantheon. The Celts had a large pantheon of which about 300 to 400 names are known to us today. Though most of these names appear only once, inscribed on alters or votive objects. Many of these deities were likely to be local forms of pan-Celtic deities. This also stands true for the Vedic pantheon, practically every deity known throughout ancient India had a local name alongside other titles which will have been in more widespread use. Often their function also slightly varied from region to region. It is interesting to note that the Celtic term for the Gods is 'Deuos' and the Vedic term is 'Devas', both terms meaning "Shining Ones".
A Celtic God that is well known today and who was also known throughout the Celtic world is Lugh (also known as Lug, Llue, Llew and Lugus). Lugh was the chief Celtic solar deity, called Lugh Lamfota meaning "Lug of the Long Arm" in Ireland or Lleu Llaw Gyffes "Lleu of the Dextrous Hand" in Wales. In Irish tradition Lugh is also known as Samildánach, "Skilled in All the Arts". The two weapons that Lugh is associated with are the rod-sling and a magickal spear. However the spear, unlike the rod-sling, possessed a life of it's own. Not only was it alive but it was driven by a thirst for blood. A thirst which was so strong that the only way in which it could be controlled was by resting the spear head in crushed poppy leaves. Lugh was the Divine leader of the Tuatha De Danann, after having proved his abilities to the king, Nuada of the Silver Hand.
The Celtic Sun God Lugh
Danu in Celtic & Vedic Myth
One of the most striking comparisons to be found between the Celtic and Vedic pantheon is that of a Goddess named Danu and the myths surrounding her (also known in Celtic traditions as Don, Dana and possibly also Anu or Ana). A Goddess named Danu appears both in Celtic and Vedic mythology. She features heavily in Celtic mythology as the Mother Goddess (and a river Goddess). She is one of the most ancient known of all Celtic Goddesses, from whom the hierarchy of Gods received it's name of Tuatha De Danann, "Folk of the Goddess Danu". Whereas in Vedic mythology the Goddess Danu gives birth to the seven Danvanas, the dark ones of the ocean. Surrounding the Goddess Danu in each culture's mythology is a similar tale of battle, each of which I shall briefly relate now.
In the earliest of Celtic documents there is the battle of Moytur fought between the people of the Goddess Danu and the Fomors. The Fomors being Celtic deities of death, darkness and the sea. They were the offspring of "Chaos and Old Night", their name being derived from two Gaelic words meaning "under sea". The Fomers were born from another Mother Goddess called Domnu whose name seems to have signified the abyss or deep sea. The battle between the Fomors and the Tuatha De Danann began at the end of summer and the beginning of winter, on the eve of Samhain (the Celtic festival of the dead). During the course of the bloody battle many were killed, including many of the chieftains. Of all the Fomors the deadliest was Balor, with his eye that could slay by merely looking upon an individual. However during the later stages of the war Lugh shouted on him and before Balor could look upon Lugh, Lugh had thrown a magickal stone at Balor. the stone struck Balor, forcing his deadly eye out through the back of his head. On falling to the ground the eye then gazed on many of the Fomors, killing them, and turning the tide of the battle toward the Tuatha De Danann. Eventually the Fomors were driven away and the people of Danu were victorious.
A similar struggle between opposing forces is to be found in Vedic mythology. This struggle was between the Adityas, the children of the Goddess Aditi, and the Danavas, the children of the Goddess Danu. The Danavas where the antithesis of all that is symbolised by the earth, the sky and the sun. This myth is referred to throughout the Rig Veda and focuses primarily on the God Indra in his victory over the Danavan God Vrtra. In the Rig Veda Vrtra is described as being a limbless dragon and the source of a great drought. When Indra slays him (Vrtra) with his thunder bolt the seven waters are released. It reads in the Rig Veda (Griffith Translation) "He slew the Dragon, then disclosed the waters, and cleft the channels of the mountain torrents." (Rig I.32.1) In the same hymn it later reads "Then humbled was the strength of Vrtra's mother: Indra hath cast his deadly bolt against her. The mother was above, the son under, and like a cow beside her calf lay Danu." (Rig I.32.9)
Danu in the Vedic myth is bondage and restraint and her son Vrtra is the constrictor. Whereas the Goddess Aditi is the Boundless and the Infinite, and Indra by using his tapas, which is represented by his lightening bolt, becomes the "winner of the light". What is to be found here in an esoteric sense is the cycle of life-giving sacrifice (slaying of Vrtra) and the birth of diversification (realeasing of the waters). It is the macrocosmic struggle between light and dark, order and chaos. While on the microcosmic level it is knowledge over ignorance. In the Celtic myth the Goddess Domnu is regarded as being of "Chaos and Old Night", the abyss, from whence came the Fomors the deities of the dark waters who were conquered by Lug, the Celtic Sun God, and the Tuatha De Danann. Again it is the light conquering the darkness. The two myths are fundamentally the same, both tell of the primordial waters, that undifferentiated state of being before the time of creation, and light emerging in triumph over darkness to allow life to flow. This theme seems to be repeated in a rather abstract creation hymn in the Rig Veda, "Darkness there was: at first concealed in darkness this All was indiscrimated chaos. All that existed then was void and formless: by the great power of Warmth was born that unit" (X.129).
However the Celtic version of the Indra and Vrtra myth is highly anthropomorphic, far more than that of the Vedic version. This is common in myths that have spread from culture to culture over vast time periods. The original myth is often much more abstract than a version of the same myth to be found in another culture hundreds or even thousands of years later. This then suggests that if these are the same myth the Celtic version is secondary to the primary Vedic version. Further suggesting that the strong possiblity exists of Celtic religion have originated out of India. Yet much of the anthropomorphism may be due to a Christian influence which may have, as with much of Celtic myths and literature, altered them accordingly towards their own perceptions, turning Gods into mortal men.
There exists another myth that holds a similarity to Vrtra. ThisCeltic myth is about a race of Gods before the people of Danu called the Partholons, who also fought with the Fomors. The Partholons fought against a Fomor surnamed Cichol (or Cenchos) the Footless. It is with Cichol that comparisons with Vrtra have been drawn because of them both being of fantastic proportions and having a "Footless and handless" (RG 1, 32:7) serpent/dragon appearance.
Yet what remains unclear in exploring the Danu myths is the Goddess Danu Herself. Between the two myths Danu appears to represent both light and darkness. In the Vedic myth Danu is the mother of darkness, representative of the state of unmanifest being or She may be the mother of the forces of maya. Here Danu is the equivalent of Domnu is the Celtic myth. Whereas in the Celtic version Danu is the opposite, She is the mother of those who symbolise all that is light and lawful, the equivalent of the Vedic Aditi. This confusion surrounding Danu may be the result of migrating Vedic people out of India, travelling westward towards Europe. As with Celtic literature, Vedic literature tells of many disputes between the various peoples of ancient India. Therefore the possibility exists that the contrasting Danus are the result of a dispute between the some of the Vedic groups, or possibly a religious schism within Vedic culture. Some of these groups may have migrated westwards, taking with them their particular version of Vedic religion. Which although may contain some differences, is never-the-less fundamentally identical to the rest of early Vedic religion. Also as trade routes became more widely used cultural (including religious) boundaries became less defined, resulting in a degree of cultural fusion. This also would help to account for the spread of Vedic beliefs and deities, yet at the same time may help explain the Danu dichotomy.
Successful comparisons may also be drawn between Lug and Indra. This is partially made possible by Indra, in addition to his typical associations of rain, thunder and lightning, also having strong solar associations in the Rig Veda. Throughout the Rig Veda there are many hymns to Indra (more than any other God or Goddess) and many of these contain references that associate Indra with the Sun and light. Another parallel between Lug and Indra is that they were both not the original leaders of their respective groups. Lug was given the position of leader of the Tuatha De Danann for thirteen days by Nuada of the Silver Hand. Indra only became the chief of the Vedic Gods and the people's favourite after he had defeated Vrtra. Indra has also been connected with the myth of Tain Bo Cuailgne. Here Indra's symbolic animal representation, the bull, is compared with the Celtic bull of Quelgny. Again what is found is a solar association in both Celtic and Vedic myth.
Contemporary image of Indra
Image source - Mirror of India-
Places of Worship
Some of the most auspicious places of worship for the Celtic and Vedic peoples were rivers. As already mentioned the Celtic Goddess Danu is particularly associated with rivers, she was the "divine waters" falling from heaven. From these waters the great Celtic river, once known as Danuvius, presently known as the Danube, was created. Many rivers in Europe still owe their current name to their associations with the Goddess Danu, such as the Rhone. In both Celtic and Vedic cultures offerings were often placed in rivers and those of the Celts were especially elaborate. The Celts would often offer much of their riches and treasures, sometimes approximately 25% of a tribe's economy would be given to the Gods at any one time.
In the falling of the Danu river we find a parallel to the an India Goddess and the most holy of rivers in India today, the Ganges. In Puranic mythology the Goddess Ganga's fall to earth was broken by the matted locks of Shiva (known as Rudra in the Vedas), who then released her to fall on the earth. The river which is venerated in the Rig Veda is that of the Sarasvati. Like Danu and Ganga, Sarasvati is the name of a Goddess, as well as a river. However the Sarasvati river is thought to have dried up and it is from that time the Ganges has fulfilled her river role.
Some astounding ancient structures to be found in the Eurpoean lands of the Celts and in India are those of Dolmens. A dolmen is a shallow chamber that is composed of tall vertical upright stones, forming the walls, and a horizontal stone resting across the top to form a roof. Similar to what is found at Stonehenge, though on a much smaller scale. A feature found in some dolmens in both Europe and India is a small single hole in the back of these stone chambers. What the purpose of these small holes is remains unknown, as does the purpose of the dolmens. Though most interpretations link these holes either with birth or death. Most Celtic researchers seem to agree that these structures were created by a Megalithic people prior to Celtic culture, about whom little is known for certain. Is it possible that these Megalithic people had contact with Indian culture long before the Celts and is this why these constructions are to be found in both eastern and western lands?
Stonehenge - A lost Vedic connection? >
Another of the sacred dwellings was that of specific areas of woods and groves. According to Tacitus the "Woods and groves are the sacred depositories; and the spot being consecrated to those pious uses, they give to that sacred recess the name of the divinity that fills the place, which is never profaned by the steps of man. The gloom fills every mind with awe; revered at a distance and never seen but with the eye of contemplation." Similarly there are many Indian tales of Brahmans and holy men who lived in forests of which some were especially sacred spaces (see inf. on the Sleshmantaka Forest in 'The Horned God in India & Europe' article). A selection of Vedic texts written after the four main Samhitas (the Rig, Sama, Yajur and Artharva Vedas) are the Aranyakas, meaning 'forest treatise'. Indicating that these were composed in the reclusive depths of the forests.
Celtic & Vedic Fairies
Celtic stories are well known for their fairy folk, the little people who inhabit trees and hills. Sometimes they were the source of mischief or misfortune, other times the were advantageous and benevolent. The stories tell us that they delight in music and loved to dance. The Celtic fairies (also called Sidhes) often blended in myth with the Gods and like the Gods the fairies knew magick, fought wars and married amongst themselves.
In Vedic culture fairies are called yaksas. This is the collective name of the mysterious little Godlings or sprites that inhabit the fields, forests and jungles. Like Celtic fairies the yaksas could be either beneficent or malignant. They were offered propitiation which was meant to keep them in good relations with the village folk. The yaksas seem to have been vegetal Godlings of Indian rural communities, stretching as far back as pre-Vedic times. Although they were rather ignored in the scriptures there are references to them in the Artharva Veda. The yaksas are asked to give freedom from distress (book 11, 6:10) and they are also spoke of in a passage about creation (book 10, 7:38). The yaksas are also referred to in the Artharva Veda as 'itarajanah', meaning the 'other folk'. At some time these Indian fairy folk must have been widespread in Vedic folklore, evident from their spread into Jain and Buddhist mythology. However much folklore has been lost on the yaksas, either it has been absorbed into sectarian deities or suppressed in later Vedic times. Yet some yaksas remain represented in shrines throughout India, an example of which is the yaksas Purnabhadra near Campa, which is described in the Aupaptika Sutra. Situated in a grove underneath an asoka tree is a black, octagonal altar. Carved into the side of this altar were figures of men, bulls, horses, birds, wolves and snakes, perhaps illustrating some myth or legend.
Supposedly the favourite of the yaksas' locations is in a rural village's sacred tree. Here they would be safe from harms way and it was believed that having the yaksas there was prosperous for the village. Offerings and tiny gifts would be laid at the trunk of the tree, while flower garlands would be hung from the branches. There was also a fertility association with the yaksas in the sacred tree. As were there also associations of treasure buried at the tree roots, again like some of the Celtic fairies.
In the next article on the Celtic Vedic connection other areas, such
as ways of worship, language, and cosmology, will be explored.
Questions and comments to firstname.lastname@example.org
CLICK LINK TO SEE ANCIENT GREEK SHIVA LINGA OF THE DELPHI
Click Greek Shiv folder to view
The sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi, and all the Pythian sanctuaries after it, were all centered around the "omphalus", also called the "center of the world", which from the depictions was obviously a Siva lingam, with the Sakti serpent coiled around it and even bilva leaves scattered on it. I can send the drawing by jpg file if anyone is interested. I found it in a book where Vedic civilization was not mentioned at all, and the writer had never heard about Siva or lingam worship.
Dear Friend, Namaste!
Thank you for your kind message.
I am sending you as attachments the following jpg picture:
Picture taken from a very interesting book written
by Vicki Noble, "Shakti Woman: Feeling our Fire, Healing our World".
SOURCE:THE CELTS By Gerhard Herm Bryan Mcmahon, historian, scholar of folklore, teacher, a well known poet and much else besides, likes to test his favorite theories in practice and to retail them with all the skill and timing of a seasoned performer. He told me:Whenever I meet an Indian I take him to one side and hum the first lines of an Irish folk-song. Then I ask him to continue the melody as he likes; and, believe it or not, almost every time he will sing it to the end as if he already knew the song. Isn't that astonishing?
For me it is an indication that Indians and Irishmen have a common past; that, as I put it in one of my plays, "We Celts came from the Mysterious East."
The late Myles Dillon, formerly Prof of Celtic at U of Dublin cites a whole series of further astonishing parallels between the culture of the Aryan Indians and the Irish Druids.(Druid from Dru=Oak Wid or Ved=Wisdom) His main contention is that in both cases there was a distinct class of scholars;the Brahmins in India, the highest reps in the Varna system; while in Ireland there were the 'wise men of the oak'. Dillon reckons that the Brahmins and the Druids should be equated because they carried out their profession-teaching and study, poetry and law-in a similar way.There is evidence that this is so.
The principles by which justice was administred were similar, indeed identical with those in India.There a father with daughters but no sons could order one of them to take a man of his choice and produce a legal heir. beyond the Hindu Kush mountains, such a girl was called putrika (she who takes the son's place) and in old Ireland ban-chomarba(female-heir). But who if not the Continental Celts can have told the
Irish what was going on in the far east? Dillon further notes similarities:in both cultures there were 8 differant forms of marriage, from arranged marriages, marriage by purchase and love-matches to kidnapping. In both cultures there was a strict distinctiopn between inherited and earned property and when contracts were drawn up there was an exact statement as to who was to provide what guarantees before obtaining what he wanted. In one case it was the Brahmins and in the other the Druids who administred these principles.
All this, Dillon says, suggests that the Celtic Druids indeed represented the same tradition as the Hindu Brahmins....
If we continue to feel our way along the parralels between India and Gaul, sooner or later we sense that the Druids were also political leaders, just as the Brahmins clealry stood above generals and warriors.
The Druids, Ceaser says, taught that "souls do not disappear but wander from one body to another'.Lucan in his Pharsalia-a verse epic about the Roamn civil war-addressed them with the words:'If we understand you aright, death is only a pause in a long life.'Maybe he was right;if so, did the belief come from the Indo-European source that produced the Brahmins and the Druids? Or is it chance that lands as far apart as India and France produced a belief in metempsychosis?Does the fact that according to Scythian custom, crests depicted Eagles, wolves, bears as anscestors reflect the conviction of these people that the spirit of the dead goes through many life-forms, human and animal, as the Hindus believe? If so, do the Russian steppe people form a bridge between the cultures of the Far East and the Far West?...
...Ancient Author Diodorus's own most adventorous suggestion-'they still hold Pythgoras's belief in the immortality of the soul and rebirth.'...But since Pythagoras, with his strong influences from the east, wqas among the few great Hellinic philosophers who believed in the possibilty of life after death, they could only conclude that his belief was related to the blond barbarians,(The Celts) or that they had taken theirs from him.
VEDIC-CULTURE REVIVAL IN IRELAND
A reader’s letter published in The Times of India dated 31 August 1999 said “I was pleasently surprised to see a TV channel telecasting a programme on the Teraching of Sanskrit. Vedic mathematics, the Rigvda and the Indian epics. The principal and teachers, all Irish that they found Sansskrit grammer the most compact and scientifically designed. As for Vedic mathematics the leaader stated nthat one could do complex calculations simply by looking at the figures.”
The above letter – writer’s surprise arises from the faulty, truncated history being currently taught since Christain and Muslim domination all over the world .
P. N. Oak’s 1375 – page volume titied WORLD VEDIC HERITAGE points out how Vedic culture and Sanskrit language pervaded the whole world, from the very first generation of humanity, for millions of years, until forcible to Christianity, conducted from 312 to 1162 A.D and to Islam for 1100 years starting from 622 A.D obliterated vedic culture and Sanskrit from those regious.
The pre-conversion Vedic history of converted regious, countries and peaple was totally and deliberately wiped out. Like a seed embedded in the soil sprouting unknowingly after a long interval, that suppressed history is now reappearing in the public conscience.
Ireland itself is a malpronunciation of the sanskrit term Arya-sthan. The term Aryan applied to all those whose practiced Vedic culture and spoke Sanskrit.
January 14, 2000 VNN5273
BY VRIN PARKER
USA, Jan 14 (VNN) — In 1977, a royal tomb was found at Vergina, near Saloniaca, in Macedonia, Greece. All the evidence proves it to be the tomb of King Philip, the father of Alexander the Great. However, Western scholars were puzzled because of the many artifacts, within the tomb of an obvious Indian/ Vedic nature. Because of these artifacts, some experts dated the tomb to a time after Alexander's. This theory is no longer being accepted.
In Michael Wood's series, In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great, he presents 2 sculpted portraits of Alexander and Philip. Archeologists accept these sculpted portraits of Alexander, as the only ones made during his lifetime.
Philip's portrait is also recognized as being made in his lifetime.
Where were these portraits found? They were found in the Macedonian tomb, discovered in 1977, thus confirming that the tomb is definately from before Alexander's march to Asia.
KING PHILLIP OF MACEDONIA
Because the tomb is full of Vedic/Indian style artifacts, this is solid proof that Greek culture had a strong connection to India, long before Alexander's time. The tomb in question has also been accepted as the tomb of King Philip on the series War and Civilization. The body interned in the tomb, fits every ancient description of King Philip. Without a doubt, it is the tomb of King Philip.
The question is,"Why does King Philip's tomb have so many Indian influences? How is it possible if the Greek and Indian cultures had no direct contact until Alexander's Asian campaigns?"
The answer is simple.
Because Greek culture is an offshoot of Vedic culture, it is only logical that there would be strong Indian influences in Greek art, religion and culture.
The tomb of King Philip is also more than proof of Greece's vedic past. It is a smoking gun exposing the extreme prejudice involved in the cover up of the world's ancient Vedic heritage. Though western scholars now admit the tomb to be Philip's, they are mute about the evidences proving Greece's Vedic heritage.
On one hand, western academics are using these tomb artifacts to promote various theories, and on the other hand, they are ignoring the artifacts that prove their theories wrong.
Because there is no doubt about the Vedic artifacts found in this one case, one wonders how much other evidence is out there that has been ignored and perhaps even destroyed. It is obvious that the current mainstream academic community, has made it's mind about world history.
It is even more ironic that this is being done by the very people,ie. the
historians, who have a duty to research and present a true and accurate record of the world's ancient past.
In this case, however, the evidence is still available for the serious researcher to evaluate. Some of the items found in the tomb, include a large ceremonial gold sheild, decorated with Vedic Svastikas, a beautiful frescoe, still in full color, of a lion hunt. Clearly defined, in this frescoe, are boundry markers tied around trees. This is a recognized feature of Indian Royal hunting grounds and yet they are clearly seen in this 2300 year old Macedonian frescoe. A royal diadem was also found of the type worn by Asian Kings and Princes and gold solar emblems remeniscient of the Solar Dynasty (Surya Vamsha) were found in abundance.
These are the most obvious evidences, that we know of. One can not help but wonder how much other evidences could be found if a researcher with a Vedic background, was allowed access to this find.
How many important finds have gone unrecognized by the mainstream academic community, that has no will nor ability to recognize Vedic artifacts.
VEDIC SCULPTURE IN ANCIENT ITALY
The National Archaeological Museum in Naples is to open its "secret
collection" of frescoes, mosaics and statues to the public next month.
exhibits depict sexual activity involving gods and goddesses, satyrs, nymphs and pygmies.
The museum decided to display the works previously accessible
only to scholars or with special permission from the director after they
in books. But the initiative has been denounced by the Catholic church as an affront to public decency.
The above information was published in the Times of India (19th
February 2000). From the description above it appears that the so-called
sculptures are akin to those found in Indian temples in Khajuraho etc. far from misunderstanding them as erotic, they should be understood as
depicting the divine reproductive mechanism.
Purusha Sukta Krishna Yajur Veda
sa bhoomim vishvato vritvaa
The Supreme Lord's universal form has a thousand heads, a thousand eyes and a thousand feet, for He contains all living entities. Having pervaded the universe completely to give it existence, and being independent, He extended Himself beyond the universe by ten fingers.
purusha evedagm sarvam
yad bhootam yac ca bhavyam
The universes - past, present, and future - are but manifestations of the Supreme Lord's purusa expansion. Though He is the Lord of immortality, He has manifest Himself as the purusa in the universe so that the jivas may enjoy material fruits.
etaavaan asya mahimaa
ato jyaayagamsh ca purushah
paado 'sya vishvaa bhootaani
The past, present, and future universes are manifestations of the Lord's powers, but the Lord himself is much greater. All the living beings of the universe are but one quarter portion, and the eternal nature in the spiritual sky exists in three quarters portion.
tri-paad oordhva udait poorushah
tato vishva vyakraamat(e)
The three quarters portion of the Lord transcended the material portion. The Lord in the one quarter portion manifested the universe again, as He had done repeatedly before. The Lord of the one quarter portion began the work of creation, by going all around, taking the form of all animate and inanimate objects.
tasmaad viraad ajaayata
viraajo adhi poorushah
sa jaato atyaricyata
pashcad bhoomim atho purah
From the Lord, the universe was born, and in that universe was born the virat-purusa, the Supersoul of the universe. Then the virat-purusa grew and produced the earth and the bodies of the jivas.
yat purushena havishaa
devaa yajnam atanvata
vasanto asyaaseed aajyam
greeshma idhmah(s) sharad dhaavih
The devatas, the first beings manifested, performed a mental sacrifice to complete the creation. For the sacrifice they used the virat-purusa (the raw ingredients of the material world) as the offering. Spring was the ghee, summer the fuel wood, and autumn the offering.
trih(s) sapta samidhah krtaah
devaa yad yajnam tanvaanaa
abadhnan purusham pashum
In this sacrifice the blades of kusa grass strewn around the fire (for protection from raksasas) were seven (the seven Vedic poetic meters), and the fuel sticks were twenty one (twelve months, five seasons, three worlds and the sun). The devatas who performed the mental sacrifice tied the virat purusa to offer Him as the sacrificial animal.
tam yajnam barhishi praukshaan(e)
purusham jaatam agratah
tena devaa ayajanta
saadhyaa rishayash ca ye
The devatas, sadhyas, and rsis placed the virat-purusa, the first being of the universe, on kusa grass and sprinkled Him with water for purification. In this way they conducted the mental sacrifice using the virat-purusa.
tasmaad yajnaat sarva-hootah
pashugms tagms chakre vaayavyaan(e)
aranyaan graamyash cha ye
From the sacrifice where everything in the universe was sacrificed, yogurt and ghee - and indeed, all nourishing foods - were produced. It created the animals of the air, forest and village.
tasmaad yajnaat sarva hutah
rcah(s) samaani jajnire
chandaagmsi jajnire tasmaat(e)
yajus tasmaad ajaayata
From that ultimate sacrifice, or sarva-huta, were born the rk (hymns), sama (music), and yajus (prose) portions of the Vedas, along with the seven Vedic meters.
tasmaad ashvaa ajaayanta
ye ke chobhayaa datah
gaavo ha jajnire tasmaat(e)
tasmaaj jaataah ajaa vayah
Horses were born from the sacrifice, along with animals with two sets of teeth, such as donkeys and mules. Cows were also born from the sacrifice, along with goats and sheep.
yat purusham vyaadadhuh
mukham kim asya kau baahoo
kaavooroo paadaav uchyete
In the mental sacrifice, when they divided up the virat-purusa, how many parts did they divide? What is stated about His face, arms, thighs, and feet?
braahmano'sya mukham aaseet(e)
baahu raajanyah krtah
ooroo tad asya yad vaishyah
padbhyaagm shoodro ajaayata
The brahmanas arose from the face (of the virat-purusa), the ksatriyas from His two arms, the vaisyas from His thighs, and the sudras from the His feet.
candramaa manaso jaatah
cakshoh(s) sooryo ajaayata
mukhaad indrash caagnis ca
praanaad vaayur ajaayata
His mind gave rise to the moon; His two eyes, the sun; His breath, Vayu; and His mouth, Indra and Agni.
naabhyaa aaseed antariksham
shirshno dhyauh(s) samavartata
padbhyagm bhoomir dishah(s) shrotraat(e)
tathaa lokaagm akalpayan(e)
From His navel arose the space between earth and heaven; from His head, the heavens; from His feet, the earth; and from His ears, the directions. In this way the worlds were created.
vedaaham etam purusam mahaantam
aaditya varnam tamasastu paare
sarvaani roopaani vicitya dheerah
naamaani krtvaa 'bhivadaan(e) yad aste
I know that great virat purusa, effulgent as the sun, who stands beyond the darkness of the material creation. Having given all the living entities their forms and names, he directs their affairs
dhaataa purastaad yam udaajahaara
shakrah(ph) pravidvaan pradishash catasrah
tam evam vidvaan amrta iha bhavati
naanyah(ph) panthaa ayanaaya vidyate
Brahma explained his realization to Indra. Indra, who knows all the living entities in all four directions, explained it to all others. One who knows the nature of the virat purusa becomes immortal even in his life on earth. There is no other path to reach the goal of immortality.
yajnena yajnam ayajanta devaah
taani dharmaani prathamaany aasan(e)
te ha naakam mahimaanah(s) sacante
yatra poorve saadhyaah(s) santi devaah
In this way the devatas conducted the mental sacrifice using the virat purusa to manifest variety in the world. By that sacrifice, both the physical laws of nature and the first spiritual codes of conduct arose. The great souls by similar mental worship attain the place of immortality where the sadhyas and devatas, the first worshippers, now dwell.
adbhyah(s) sambhutah(ph) prthivyai rasaac ca
tasya tvashtaa vidadhad roopameti
tat purusasya vishvam aajaanam agre
The universe arose from the waters of creation, and from the earthly, solid element. From the Supreme Lord arose the virat purusa. That virat purusa then began to make the variety of forms in the the universe. In this way the universe was manifested through the virat purusa.
vedaaham etam purusham mahaantam
aaditya varnam tamasah(ph) parastaat(e)
tam evam vidvaan amrta iha bhavati
naanyah(ph) panthaa vidyate 'yanaaya
I know that purusa who shines like the sun, situated beyond the darkness of the material realm. One who knows this purusa becomes immortal in this world. There is no other path than this.
prajaapatish carati garbhe antah
ajaayamaano bahudhaa vijaayate
tasya dheerah(ph) parijaananti yonim
mareeceenaam padam icchanti vedhasah
In this way the Lord of all creatures, who is unborn, acts within the universe and is born in myriads of forms. The wise understand and worship the Lord who is the source of everything, and desire to attain the status of Marici Prajapati.
yo devebhya aatapati
yo devaanaam purohitah
purvo yo devebhyo jaatah
namo rucaaya braahmaye
I pay my respects to the effulgent Supreme Brahman who bestows powers of the devatas, who is concerned for the welfare of the devatas, who was born before the devatas.
rucam braahmam janayantah
devaa agre tad abruvan(e)
yas tvaivam braahmano vidyaat(e)
tasya devaa asan vashe
The devatas, in order to make known the glories of the Lord to the world, standing before the Lord proclaimed, "The devatas themselves come under the control of the seeker of Brahman, the person who realizes the true nature of God."
hrees ca te laksmeesh ca patnyau
aho raatre paarshve
istam manishaana amum manishaana sarvam manishaana
Hri (natural virtue) and Laksmi (glory) are Your consorts. Day and night are Your sides. The innumerable glittering constellations are Your form. The asvins, appearing as dawn, are Your open mouth. Please grant our desires for self-realization. Grant us that facility in the material world. Grant us the supreme goal.
Harih Om Shaanti Shaanti Shaantih
Britain Recognizes Need of Romany-Speaking
LONDON, UK, August 26, 2003: There are about 42,000 Gypsy children in British schools, and education authorities have now realized that the education system has largely ignored their special needs. Historically the Gypsies began their journey from the Indus valley in northern India, travelled through Persia, and reached Hungary and other parts of eastern Europe about 1,000 years ago. They are thought to have arrived on English soil about 400 years ago. Their language, known as Romany, is recognizable, but not entirely intelligible, to a Hindi-speaking person. In official records they are known as Romany Gypsies, one of the smallest communities among Britain's ethnic minority population dominated by Asians and Afro-Caribbeans. Britain has ensured that cultures of ethnic minority groups are well catered for in the education system, particularly those of the Asian communities speaking Punjabi, Urdu and Bengali. However, now education authorities have realized that the policy has largely failed to cater to the cultural needs of Romany Gypsy children. They rarely receive specialist support nor is their culture recognized in the curriculum. Schools Minister Stephen Twigg stated: "Gypsy traveller pupils present many challenges for schools. There are issues of racism, discrimination, stereotyping and a need for better links between parents and teachers. Schools must overcome these challenges and make sure that the pupils get as good an education as everyone else."
Courtesy of http://www.HinduismToday.com/